* * * * *

      On December 21, 1535, Juan de Vergara appeared in the plaza of Zocadover in Toledo">Toledo. There, in full public view.and in the presence of a number of his colleagues and companions from Alcala and Toledo, he abjured de vehementi his heresies and errors. He was fined fifteen hundred ducats and sentenced to one year of imprisonment in the monastery of San Agustin. On January 6, 1536, he was removed to the monastery, where he remained until his release by the Inquisition on February 27, 1537, a little less than four years after the date of his arrest.

      NOTE: So much of the information in these biographical sketches is drawn from fragmentary references scattered throughout the trials of the period that orthodox citations would be intolerably cumbersome. The reader will find, therefore, that I have used abbreviated references to the sources, and that I have placed those references immediately at the end of each sketch.

      ACEVEDO, Rodrigo de. Canon of Toledo, named as a witness to Vergara's purportedly heretical conversation with Bernardino de Flores. He may be the same person as the Portuguese Acevedo who conversed with Isabel de la Cruz at least long enough to hear from her that Hell did not exist. Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      AGUILAR, Diego de. Servant of Bernardino de Tovar, Aguilar carried secret messages back and forth between Vergara and Tovar. He was also used by Tovar to transmit messages to other prisoners inside the Toledo jail. When discovered, Aguilar was jailed and in May, 1533, he admitted his guilt, for which he presumably received proper punishment. Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      ALBADAN, Pedro de. A native of Guadalajara, Albadan was the son and namesake of the groom ("caballerizo") of the Duke of Infantado. He was also a nephew of Pedro Ruiz de Alcaraz, and was an active participant in the Illuminist conventicles in Guadalajara. In 1524 Albadan brought Diego Hernandez to Guadalajara and introduced him to Maria de Cazalla, to the eternal regret of the latter. Although he was summoned before the Toledo inquisitors in 1524, where he testified to the good Christian character of Alcaraz, he seems never to have been tried himself, despite the fact that he was known to the Inquisition as an Illuminist. Alcaraz proceso; Bivar proceso; Vergara proceso.



      ALBORNOZ, Diego de. Doctor Diego de Albornoz, who taught theology at Alcala, first appeared as a witness in the Illuminist investigations of 1525, when he testified that he had heard Rodrigo de Bivar express a number of Illuminist opinions. In 1535 Albornoz gave half-hearted support to one of the accusations made against Vergara by Diego Hernandez, unaware that a few years before he too had twice been denounced by Hernandez as a Lutheran follower of Tovar and Alfonso or Juan de Valdes. However, he does not seem to have been personally molested by the Inquisition. Bivar proceso; Vergara proceso.

      ALCANTARA, Diego de. A Dominican friar used frequently by the Toledo Inquisition as an expert in matters of theology. He is to be distinguished from the Franciscan friar, Diego de Alcantara, guardian of the Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes in Toledo, who testified as a favorable character witness for the Illuminist Luis de Beteta in 1538. Beteta proceso; Petronila proceso; Vergara proceso.

      ALCARAZ, Pedro Ruiz de. See RUIZ DE ALCARAZ, Pedro.

      ALCOCER. Denounced by Diego Hernandez as a Lutheran, Alcocer was henkeeper ("gallinero") of the Duke of Infantado, and was involved in the Illuminist movement in Guadalajara. Vergara proceso.

      ALDONZA, Dona. Denounced as a Lutheran by Diego Hernandez, dona Aldonza was abbess of the Monastery of Santa Isabel de los Reyes in Guadalajara. The Guadalajara branch of this monastery, professing the rigidly ascetic rule of the thirteenth century Italian St. Clare, was founded by Sor Maria of Toledo, famous for her severe self discipline and highly contemplative nature, and enthusiastically favored by Cardinal Ximenez de Cisneros. In view of the Illuminist tendencies among some of the Franciscans around Cardinal Ximenez, it is not surprising to find that the Guadalajara monastery was compromised with the same movement. The abbess, dona Aldonza, had been the recipient, along with Maria de Cazalla, of letters of Juan del Castillo, copied for her by Diego Hernandez. Isabel de la Cruz had at


one time done Illuminist missionary work in the monastery; Gil Lopez de Bejar was known to have preached there; Diego Hernandez used to confess (and seduce) some of the nuns, and the sister of Geronimo de Olivares was a member of the Alcala branch of this same order. Beteta proceso; Bivar proceso; Cazalla proceso; Ortiz proceso; Petronila proceso; Vergara proceso.

      ALEJANDRO, Pedro. Doctor Pedro Alejandro ("maestro Alixandre"), from Andalusia, was professor of theology at Alcala, and a former student of Rodrigo de Cueto. Among his own students in 1530 were Agustin de Cazalla, the future "Lutheran," and Diego Lainez, the future Jesuit. In 1532 Alejandro was appointed to the chair of Saint Thomas at Alcala, and a year later he left to accept the post of Cathedral preacher in Seville. Gonzalez de Montes, the Spanish Protestant (or Protestants) who published the first "history" of the Spanish Inquisition (Heidelberg, 1567), tells us that when the Protestant Juan Gil (Doctor Egidio) was appointed cathedral preacher at Seville, it was on the recommendation of Alejandro, whose place he took. Vergara proceso; Gonzalez de Montes; Rujula; Urriza.

      ALONSO, Bernardino. Bernardino Alonso from Illescas, bachelor in arts and philosophy, was one of the earliest members of the University of Alcala, having been chosen a "colegial" of the College of San Ildefonso in September, 1508. In 1529 he served as a member of the commission of Alcala theologians appointed by Inquisitor General Manrique to examine the Doctrina cristiana of Juan de Valdes. Vergara proceso; Rujula; Torre.

      ALONSO, Catalina. In 1532 Francisca Hernandez named Catalina Alonso of Salamanca as one of the persons she had previously denounced to the Inquisition. This is the beata Catalina Alonso with whom Antonio de Medrano used to cavort in Salamanca in the years prior to 1520. There was also a Catalina Alonso of Pastrana, wife of one Francisco de Buencuchillo, who admitted to the Toledo Inquisition in 1525 and again in 1533 that she had heard Maria de Cazalla preach at the home of Catalina de Cereceda, whose house was a popular meeting


place for the Illuminists in Pastrana. Cazalla proceso; Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso.

      ARENAS. In Toledo, May 27, 1532, Diego Hernandez gave to the Inquisition a list of names of persons who, he said, were all heretical followers of Bernardino Tovar. Included in this list, and given in precisely the following order, were: Beatriz Ramirez, Luisa Velazquez, Arenas and his wife. Among the followers of Ignatius Loyola in Alcala in 1526 and 1527 were Beatriz Ramirez, Luisa Velazquez, Luisa Arenas and her sister Mencia de Benavente, all of whose names appear in the Inquisition's investigation of Loyola as an Illuminist. There is no evidence, however, that Luisa Arenas was ever questioned by the Inquisition. Vergara proceso; Fita.

      ARIAS, Maria. Wife of don Alonso de la Cerda and a devotee of Maria de Cazalla in Guadalajara, dona Maria Arias was denounced as a heretic by Diego Hernandez in 1532 and again in 1533. Maria de Cazalla herself described dona Maria as an overscrupulous sort who spent so much time in church that she neglected her duties to home and family. In the trial of Maria de Cazalla, Diego Hernandez further testified that Maria Arias had written a book in collaboration with Bishop Juan de Cazalla. Bataillon relates how Melanchthon, in the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, expressed his admiration for a book written by a Spanish lady zealous for the evangel. By abbreviating and combining two consecutive passages in the trial of Maria de Cazalla - the first passage treating of Maria Arias, and the second passage treating of the Duchess of Infantado - Bataillon identifies the Duchess as the author of the book in question. However, the trial record clearly identifies Maria Arias as author of the book, and a marginal notation in the manuscript specifically reaffirms the point. Serrano y Sanz tells us that the book was written between 1520 and 1530, and consisted of commentaries on various passages of the Bible. The Lutheran Andrew Osiander, who was present at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, in a letter dated July of that year, wrote that the book had been translated into Latin by a bishop, who could have been Bishop Juan de Cazalla. Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso; Bataillon, Erasmo; Serrano y Sanz, Apuntes.


      ARTEAGA, Elvira de. Elvira de Arteaga was the daughter of Garcia de Buytrago, treasurer of the Duke of Infantado and his second wife, Maria Falconi. In 1524 Isabel de la Cruz described Elvira as a young maiden ("doncella") and a beginner ("principiante") in Illuminist doctrines. Elvira was also a follower of Alcaraz, to whom she was distantly related, and she later joined the Illuminist group around Maria de Cazalla. Despite her apparent youth, she was dead by December 1528. In 1532 and 1533 Elvira (dead or not), along with her mother and half-sister, Isabel de Machicao, was denounced as a heretic by Diego Hernandez. Elvira had a brother, Juan de Arteaga, who is described in the Alcaraz trial in 1528 as a student.

      AVILA, Francisco de. A shoemaker, denounced as a heretic by Diego Hernandez in 1533. He might have been a relative of the baker Andres de Avila who, with his wife Beatriz, was among the followers of Loyola at the latter's suspected Illuminist conventicles in Alcala in 1526 and 1527. Vergara proceso; Fita.

      AVILA, Pedro de. Don Pedro de Avila, lord of Las Navas, was a supporter of Erasmus in Spain and was apparently a good enough friend of Vergara to have in his possession one of Erasmus' letters to Vergara. Vergara proceso.

      AYLLON, Geronimo de. Chaplain at the University of Alcala, Ayllon was named in 1532 by Diego Hernandez as the source of Hernandez' accusation that Mora denied the apostles' authorship of the Credo. It is possible that he was related to the converso Alvaro de Ayllon, who made a brief and unimportant appearance in 1533 at the trial of Maria de Cazalla, or to Gil de Ayllon, a distant relative by marriage of the Mendozas of Guadalajara. Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.



      BAEZA, Antonio de. First cousin, on his mother's side, of Leonor de Bivero, licentiate Antonio de Baeza was chief of the fortress ("alcaide de la fortaleza") of Escalona. He and his wife, dona Francisca de Zuniga, were devotees of Alcaraz and their home was sometimes the scene of Alcaraz' conventicles in Escalona in 1523 and 1524. In December 1524, Baeza testified to the Inquisition about Illuminist activities in both Escalona and Valladolid. His wife, dona Francisca, spent much of her time in the latter city with cousin Leonor de Bivero, and was a devoted follower of both Francisca Hernandez and Antonio de Medrano. The daughter of Antonio de Baeza and Francisca de Zuniga was the beata Francisca Zuniga de Baeza, who appeared at the Valladolid auto de fe of 1559 in which her third cousin Agustin de Cazalla was burned at the stake, and in which Francisca herself was sentenced to life imprisonment as a Lutheran. For other members of the immediate family of Antonio de Baeza, who were also implicated in the Illuminist movement, see the next entry, Juana de Baeza. Beteta proceso; Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso; Serrano y Sanz, Apuntes.

      BALVAS, Hernando de. Doctor Hernando de Balvas, from Zamora, was among the first fellows elected to the College of San Ildefonso at Alcala in 1508. He was rector of Alcala in 1513 and 1514, and later held the posts of abbot of the Church of San Justo y Pastor (Santiuste) and chancellor of the university. In 1521 Balvas, along with several others of his colleagues at Alcala, had been a supporter of the comunero revolt. In 1529 he served as a member of the examining commission of the Doctrina cristiana of Juan de Valdes. In 1534 Balvas and his colleague Miguel Carrasco signed Vergara's lengthy written defense presented to the Toledo Inquisition, affirming that Vergara had said nothing therein which was contrary to the Catholic faith. Vergara proceso; Bataillon, Erasmo.

      BAEZA, Juana de. Sister of Antonio de Baeza. A long term, if not lifelong resident of Valladolid, she shared the enthusiasm of her relatives for Francisca Hernandez. She and her sister, the nun Mencia de Baeza, spent a great deal of time with Francisca and were well acquainted with many of the Illuminists from Alcala and Toledo whom Francisca used to entertain in Valladolid. Juana de Baeza had at least two daughters, who used to accompany her on her visits with Francisca Hernandez. One of these daughters was Leonor de Baeza, wife of one Alonso de Paez of Valladolid. In 1531 Leonor testified in support of the good name of her great aunt Costanza Ortiz (see Leonor de Bivero), who was being posthumously tried for Judaism by the Inquisition. Beteta proceso; Costanza Ortiz proceso; Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso.

      BAEZA, Mencia de. Sister of Antonio and Juana de Baeza, dona Mencia was a nun, and like most of her relatives, was implicated in the Illuminist movement around Francisca Hernandez in Valladolid. Beteta proceso; Vergara proceso.


      BARREDA, Diego de. Diego de Barreda, a Franciscan friar operating from the monastery at Cifuentes, was the leading figure among the Illuminists of that community. He also maintained close contact with Alcaraz and Isabel de la Cruz at Guadalajara, looking upon Isabel as his inspiration and teacher. It was Barreda, along with his fellow friar Antonio de Pastrana who was chiefly responsible for converting the Illuminists of Pastrana to dejamiento, through his influence over Francisco Ximenez. Barreda was seized by the Inquisition during the early stages of its campaign against the Illuminists, probably in 1524. In Toledo, February 9, 1526, Barreda spoke of a previous confession he had made, and went on to confess a few more things: that he used to feel an inner compulsion to do all good things;

that if his prelate ordered him to jump out the window he would do so, but that if God did not move him to go to matins he would not do so even if his prelate demanded it; that he did not believe there was any Hell other than that found in offending God. Barreda's case must have been a serious one in the eyes of the Toledo inquisitors, for by 1533 he had been burned at the stake, a distinction which he shared with only four other Illuminists of his epoch - Juan del Castillo, Alonso Garzon, Juan Lopez de Calain and Juan Ramirez all of whom are discussed below. Bivar proceso; Cazalla proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso.


      BEDOY A, Gaspar de. A Franciscan cleric from Pastrana, Bedoya was one of the principal Illuminists of that city, and a close friend of Alcaraz, Isabel de la Cruz, Maria de Cazalla and Diego de Barreda. He was jailed by the Toledo Inquisition some time before 1526. From fragments of his trial, contained in the trial of Alcaraz, we learn that Bedoya humbly confessed his errors and accordingly received a punishment much less severe than that given to his colleagues Alcaraz and Isabel de la Cruz. In 1529 Bedoya was sentenced to seclusion in a monastery for a period of only a few years. He was apparently a free man in 1533, when he appeared as a witness in the trial of Maria de Cazalla; he was certainly free by May of the following year. Like many others, Bedoya was denounced by Diego Hernandez in 1533. Alcaraz proceso; Beteta proceso; Bivar proceso; Cazalla proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso.

      BERNARDO. When Francisca Hernandez came from Salamanca to Valladolid, she and her entourage of male admirers first lived at the home of the licentiate Bernardo (also referred to as Bernardino).
Bernardo's wife was Mencia de Guevara. By coincidence, in later years Francisca lived at the home of another Bernardo (Bernardino) - Bernardino Velasco - whose wife, by even stranger coincidence, was Catalina de Guevara. Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso.

      BETET A, Luis de. Luis de Beteta, a cleric from Toledo, choir priest ("capellan de coro") in the cathedral church of that city, had a family background of heterodoxy. His father, Rodrigo de Beteta, had once been reconciled by the Inquisition in Cuenca; his uncle, Hernando de Beteta, once an official ("regidor") of Cuenca, had also been under inquisitorial suspicion. Luis himself circulated among the Illuminists since the early 1520's. His name appeared in compromising circumstances in the investigations of 1524. In 1530 he was denounced at length by Francisca Hernandez and Maria Ramirez as a heretical disciple of Tovar. In 1532 Isabel de la Cruz of Toledo and Juan del Castillo implicated him further in the Illuminist movement.
Yet inquisitorial action against Beteta seems almost to have come as a lenient afterthought. He was not seized until June of 1538; five months later he was set free on bail and on February 21, 1539 he was


sentenced to only a light abjuration (de Levi) and was given a minor spiritual penance to perform. Beteta proceso.

      BIVAR, Rodrigo de. The cleric Rodrigo de Bivar, one of the relatively few Old Christians among the Illuminists, was cantor for the Duke of Infantado in Guadalajara, having joined the household there in 1517 or 1518. In the investigations of 1524 and 1525 he was identified as one of the followers of Alcaraz and Isabel de la Cruz and a frequent advocate of the superiority of mental to oral prayer, as well as a vocal enthusiast of dejamiento. In 1525, in response to an edict of grace published by the Inquisition in Guadalajara, Bivar confessed his Illuminist sins and begged for mercy on the ground that if he had erred it was only through ignorance. The inquisitors apparently granted mercy, but Bivar returned to his erroneous ways. In 1530 his name was closely linked with those of Juan Lopez de Calain and Miguel de Eguia. However, fortune still was with Bivar; despite the fact that Juan Lopez de Calain was burned at the stake, Bivar still went unmolested. Finally, in 1539, the Inquisition of Toledo decided to prosecute him for his past misdeeds. Bivar was never jailed, and his trial was very brief, since no new evidence had accumulated against him since 1530. In august 1539 he was sentenced to abjure de vehementi, to pay a fine of two hundred ducats, to perform certain spiritual penalties, and to be secluded in a monastery. After some negotiation, an additional fine of thirty ducats was substituted for monastic seclusion.

      Rodrigo de Bivar, despite his clerical profession, had a son and namesake, likewise a cleric, who held a benefice at the Church of Santa Maria in Alcala. In 1554 Rodrigo de Bivar, Junior, ("el mozo") was fined twelve ducats by the Toledo Inquisition because he tried to restrain some of the more enthusiastic sheep of his flock from piling jewels and other adornments on an image of Our Lady in the local church. Bivar proceso; Causa contra Bivar. BIVERO, Alonso de. Alonso Perez de Bivero was a cleric of the diocese of Palencia, near Valladolid, and the only brother of Leonor de Bivero (next entry). He lived in Valladolid, in a house which he inherited from his mother, and which was apparently joined to the


home of his sister and brother-in-law Pedro de Cazalla. When Francisca Hernandez moved into the Bivero-Cazalla home in 1521, Alonso de Bivero became her confessor. He soon became involved with Francisca and her friends. He and Tovar corresponded regularly, and Diego Lopez Husillo sometimes stayed at Alonso's house when he visited Valladolid. He was named by Tovar as a favorable character witness, having broken with Francisca Hernandez probably at the same time as had his sister Leonor.

      The posthumous trial for Judaism of Alonso's mother, Costanza Ortiz, affords an interesting sidelight on the family history. During the cornu nero revolt, the revolutionaries were riding high in Valladolid. Alonso de Bivero, with his sister Leonor and his brother-in-law Pedro de Cazalla, remained strong supporters of the government. In fact, Alonso regularly kept the authorities informed of the identity and activities of the cornu nero element in Valladolid. In retaliation, a gang of comuneros broke into the homes of Alonso and his sister, and almost literally tore their houses apart. With the restoration of order in the city and the dissipation of the revolt, the culprits were eventually arrested and the ringleader publicly flogged.

      Alonso Perez de Bivero had a historical twin in the person of another Alonso Perez de Bivero, also a converso, and the son of parents who had been reconciled by the Inquisition for Judaism. This second Alonso Perez de Bivero was himself required to make public abjuration of Judaism in 1537 by the Inquisition of Llerena. I have been able to find only a summary of his trial in the Inquisition records, but it is clear from this summary that he was in no way related to the Biveros of Valladolid. Costanza Ortiz proceso; Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso; Relaciones de causas (Llerena).

      BIVERO, Leonor de. Daughter of Juan de Bivero and Costanza Ortiz, Leonor de Bivero was a native of Valladolid and, like most lIIuminists, of converso origin. Her name is virtually synonymous with the history of heresy in Spain in the sixteenth century. Three generations of her family, as well as many relatives in collateral family lines, were tried by the Inquisition for Judaism, lIIuminism and Lutheranism. Leonor herself first came to the notice of the Inquisition in the early 1520's, as a result of her connection with


Francisca Hernandez, In 1521 Francisca was penanced by the Inquisition of Valladolid; her three favorite male admirers - Antonio de Medrano, Diego de Villareal and Bernardino de Tovar - were, at the same time, forbidden to have any further communication with Francisca. Leonor de Bivero then took Francisca into her home, where conditions soon became somewhat unsavory. Francisca's friends, in violation of inquisitorial order, continued to visit her, while Leonor de Bivero cooperated in the deception by letting them into the house at all hours of the night. The Inquisition soon learned of these activities and Leonor was brought in for questioning. On the urging of Antonio de Medrano, the chief offender, she denied that anything untoward had been going on in her house and insisted that Francisca and her friends had had no communication with each other since the day Francisca had moved into her home.

      In the years that followed, Leonor de Bivero and her husband Pedro de Cazalla were initiated into the l11uminist circle around Francisca Hernandez in Valladolid. Their home, which was now Francisca's court, was the headquarters, not only for the local llluminists, but also for the numerous visitors who made the pilgrimage from Escalona, Cifuentes, Pastrana, Toledo and Alcala to receive the spiritual ministrations of Francisca Hernandez. After some six years, however, the idyll began to sour for Leonor when her husband Pedro de Cazalla began to take long walks alone with Francisca during the day and to spend long hours in her room at night. This precipitated a furious family row, and must have made life uncomfortable in the Bivero household, even for Francisca Hernandez. It does not surprise us, therefore, to find that in 1527 Francisca Hernandez packed her belongings and moved to the home of one Bernardino de Velasco, at Castrillo Tejeriego, just outside of Valladolid.

      Leonor de Bivero had to wait two years for revenge. In April 1529 she was summoned by the Inquisition to testify in the new trial of Francisca Hernandez, which had recently been begun at Toledo. She now revealed that Francisca Hernandez had violated the orders of the Valladolid Inquisition in 1521 by secretly consorting with Antonio de Medrano and that the latter had prevailed upon her (Leonor) not to divulge this information when she had testified years before. She


also told the inquisitors that friar Francisco Ortiz, who became attached to Francisca in 1523, used to spend his nights in Valladolid in Francisca's room.

      In June 1531 Francisca Hernandez had her turn. She told the inquisitors of Toledo that Leonor de Bivero used to cuddle with Antonio de Medrano and that on several occasions Leonor had spent the night in Medrano's quarters. Medrano himself, anxious to support Francisca Hernandez' charges against Leonor, but understandably not eager to compromise himself too much, admitted to some furtive fondlings with this mother of ten children, but to nothing more. And there the matter ended, so far as the Inquisition was concerned.

      In the three decades which followed her years of joy and sorrow with Francisca Hernandez, Leonor de Bivero moved from Illuminism to Lutheranism. She and six of her children became the nucleus of a Lutheran movement centering in the family home at Valladolid. In 1559 the Valladolid Inquisition rounded up the entire group and in a spectacular auto de fe on May 21, destroyed most of them in the flames. Leonor, who had been placed under house arrest, died before the auto took place. So her bones were exhumed and burned, and her house was torn down and made level with the ground by order of the Inquisition.

      Menendez y Pelayo mentions the imputation of Judaism against Leonor de Bivero and her husband Pedro de Cazalla in the Inquisition of Seville. This curious statement, for which no documentation is offered, may be based on certain extant materials in the Inquisition archives at Madrid. In the trials of Antonio de Medrano and Luis de Beteta, for example, it is strongly implied that the father of Pedro de Cazalla had once been reconciled by the Inquisition, presumably for Judaism. In regard to Leonor de Bivero, the evidence is more satisfactory. In the records of the Inquisicion de Corte is a trial for Judaism of dona Costanza Ortiz, the mother of Leonor de Bivero. This trial, which actually took place in Valladolid, tells us a great deal about the family background of Leonor de Bivero and her brother Alonso Perez de Bivero (preceding entry). Costanza Ortiz, of Jewish origins, was the wife of Juan de Bivero. She was a woman of considerable wealth in Valladolid, owning property there, which she left to her two children. Some time during her lifetime she was reconciled by the


Inquisition and required to do public penance as a Judaizer. After her death in 1524, three of the maids in her house, who had been fired by dona Costanza - one for stealing and two for bringing men into their rooms at night - began spreading stories about town to the effect that dona Costanza used to observe a Jewish diet and practice Jewish religious rites behind closed doors, even after she had been reconciled by the Inquisition. In March and April of 1526 the three wenches repeated their accusations before the Valladolid inquisitors, who had heard (naturally) about these stories circulating around town.
It seemed that the matter would end there. But two and a half years later, the Valladolid inquisitors decided to revive the case of Costanza Ortiz, although the lady herself had been beyond reviving for almost five years. The two children of dona Costanza - Alonso Perez de Bivero and Leonor de Bivero, along with the latter's husband, Pedro de Cazalla - immediately came to Costanza's defense. They were able to produce a large number of witnesses who testified that their mother had been a faithful Catholic, that she had died in the orthodox odor (of sanctity), and that the three maids, on whose testimony the entire case was based, had all been motivated by malice and enmity against the deceased. Finally, on March 18, 1532, dona Costanza was formally absolved of the charges against her, the notice of acquittal being read in public in Valladolid. Alcaraz proceso; Beteta proceso; Costanza Ortiz proceso; Medrano proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso; Bataillon, Erasmo; Lea, Inquisition; Menendez y Pelayo, Heterodoxos.

      BLAS, Sebastian. Chaplain at the University of Alcala and a close friend of Manuel de Miona. Judging from his behavior as described to the Inquisition by Diego Hernandez, Sebastian BIas suffered from an extraordinary amount of inner compulsions, which only Miona knew how to cure. Vergara proceso; Rujula.

      BROCHERA, Maria. Dona Maria Brochera and her husband, Francisco Maldonado, were citizens of Salamanca who frequently entertained Francisca Hernandez and Antonio de Medrano in their home during the years prior to 1520, when Francisca was just beginning her


career as a self-employed seeress. When Medrano was on trial by the Inquisition in 1524, dona Maria testified to his good and saintly character. In 1530 she was still living in Salamanca and apparently never had any difficulties with the Inquisition. Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso.

      BURGOS, Antonio de. Franciscan friar, and a close friend of Francisco Ortiz. He usually accompanied Ortiz on the latter's visits to Francisca Hernandez in Valladolid. Friar Antonio had a brother Diego, who was a canon of the Church of San Justo y Pastor at Alcala. Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso.

      BUYTRAGO, Garcia de. Garcia de Buytrago, treasurer of the Duke of Infantado and a distant kinsman of Alcaraz, enjoys a small degree of historical notoriety because various members of his family were implicated in the Illuminist movement. See his wife Maria Falconi and his daughters Elvira de Arteaga and Isabel de Machicao. Garcia de Buytrago was already dead in 1524. Alcaraz proceso; Bivar proceso; Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      CABRERA, Maria. In 1533 Diego Hernandez included on his list of heretics the name of Maria Cabrera, "mother of the archdeacon." The only other Cabrera I have found in the trial records of this period is the cleric Alonso de Cabrera, citizen of Torre de Lobraton, an unsuccessful and disgruntled suitor of Francisca Hernandez in Salamanca. Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso.

      CAJETAN, Cardinal. Cardinal Cajetan (Thomas de Vio), general of the Dominican Order, was papal legate in Germany at the time of the Lutheran revolt. He gave Luther a hearing in Augsburg in 1518, but the two men found both their views and their personalities to be incompatible. Cajetan was the author of allegorical commentaries on several books of the Bible; these commentaries, like many other things, came under the censure of the Sorbonne faculty in 1533 and again, after Cajetan's death, in 1544. Vergara proceso; Cossio.


      CAREGA. In 1533 Diego Hernandez denounced Carega and Castro as heretical followers of Tovar. Carega was probably a fellow student of Castro at Alcala. Vergara proceso.

      CARMONA, (Alonso de?). Denounced as a Lutheran by Diego Hernandez in 1533 was "Carmona, in the service of the archdeacon." This is presumably the Franciscan friar Alonso de Carmona, who was confessor to the future Adrian VI when Adrian was Inquisitor General of Spain. In June 1529 Francisco Ortiz told the Toledo inquisitors an interesting tale, which he said had been told to him by Carmona. It seems that when Adrian was Inquisitor General he showed Carmona the recent proceso against Francisca Hernandez in Valladolid and explained to Carmona that there was nothing in Francisca's trial to indicate that she was prejudicial to the faith. The only reason, Adrian continued, that the inquisitors did not set Francisca Hernandez completely free was that she had laughing eyes (of which, presumably, the inquisitors did not approve). When Adrian became pope in 1522 he directed Carmona to write to Francisca Hernandez asking her, in Adrian's name, to pray to God for Adrian, his papacy and the entire Church. (I must confess that I have a hard time believing any of this.) Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso.

      CARRANZA DE MIRANDA, Sancho. Doctor of theology and uncle of the famous Bartolome Carranza de Miranda, Sancho Carranza de Miranda was one of the leading supporters of Erasmus in Spain. He taught at the University of Alcala; he was named inquisitor of Navarre in 1528 and canon of the cathedral of Seville in 1529. He died in 1531, just as the Inquisition was warming up to the prosecution of Erasmism in Spain. Longhurst, Juan de Valdes.

      CARRASCO, Miguel. Doctor Miguel Carrasco held the chair of Saint Thomas at the University of Alcala and also served as confessor to Vergara's employer, Archbishop Fonseca of Toledo. He defended Erasmus at the Valladolid conference of 1527; he revealed to Vergara some of the details of the Inquisition charges against Tovar, and in 1534 he formally attested to the orthodoxy of Vergara's remarks in the latter's written reply to the Inquisition's charges against him.


      Doctor Carrasco had also worked for the Inquisition: in 1526 he had been one of the two investigators directed by the Inquisition of Toledo to inquire into the suspected Illuminist activities of Ignatius Loyola at Alcala. Beteta proceso; Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso; Bataillon, Erasmo; Fita; Longhurst, Dialogue of Lactancio; Loyola, Autobiografia; Rujula; Urriza.

      CASTILLO, Diego del. A well-to-do merchant from Burgos who played the part of a small time Maecenas to the lIIuminists. Through his business connections in Flanders he bought suspect books of Holy Writ for his friend Tovar in Alcala and contributed money for the abortive twelve apostles movement at Medina de Rioseco. In 1530 he was denounced by Francisca Hernandez and Maria Ramirez as an Illuminist disciple of Tovar and one of the would-be apostles of Medina de Rioseco. In 1532 and 1533 Diego Hernandez denounced him as a follower of Tovar and a Lutheran. Meanwhile, Diego del Castillo had apparently gone to Granada with his Illuminist friends Juan Lopez de Calain and Diego Lopez Husillo. He was picked up by the Inquisition there, as were his two companions. Perhaps by the end of 1534, and certainly by the end of 1535, he had been reconciled by the Granada Inquisition as an Illuminist and/or Lutheran, and all his property (which must have been considerable) confiscated. Beteta proceso; Vergara proceso; Bataillon, Erasmo; Longhurst, "Alumbrados of Toledo." There was another Diego del Castillo, of no importance to Illuminist matters, except by accident. He was the father of Maria Ramirez, maid and denouncing companion of Francisca Hernandez. Since Maria was a niece of Antonio de Medrano, this would make Diego number two a brother, or a brother-in-law, or something, of Medrano. Vergara proceso.

      CASTILLO, Juan del. A cleric and Greek scholar, Juan del Castillo was introduced to the Erasmian movement through the patronage and favor of Inquisitor General Alonso Manrique. He taught Greek to


a mixture of Illuminists and Erasmists in Toledo in 1525. From there he moved to the University of Alcala, where he came under the influence of Bernardino de Tovar. He participated in the twelve apostles' movement of Medina de Rioseco and, through Tovar, came to know most of the leading Illuminists of Spain. In 1530 he fled to avoid arrest by the Inquisition. He was tracked down, first in Paris, then in Rome, and finally in Bologna, where he had secured a position teaching Greek at the university. Early in February, 1533, Castillo was seized and brought back to Spain as a prisoner of the Inquisition, and some time later he was burned at the stake, not so much perhaps for the nature of his heresies as for his flight from the Inquisition. Longhurst, "Alumbrados of Toledo."

      The letters of Castillo are mentioned on several occasions in the trial of Vergara, and they seemingly were copied for modest distribution to interested Illuminists. Only five of them are still extant. They were written to Castillo's sister Petronila de Lucena, who gave them in turn to Diego Hernandez, who turned them over to the Inquisition. For what it is worth I reproduce them here.


     "May the Holy Spirit be with you in a new way, so that ever in the sacrifice of worship and purity of our souls we may offer ourselves to our Blessed Father so that He, with ineffable sweetness and sovereign peace which passeth all understanding, may send to us His only begotten son Jesus Christ to dwell in our souls forever. In His presence all things become as one, because He contains the Essence which all things must have, in accordance with the admirable order and provision of God. Thus all our good is in desiring, knowing, and loving with new strength this so infinite good which embraces in itself all good things and fills us with them; for there is no other good which can make us happy in heaven and on earth except God alone who is the Maker of all good things. Write me how it goes with you and your sister. Certainly there is little more to be said than what has been said; and thus He commands us to know the Lord in His goodness and to seek Him always in our hearts, for God curses the deceitful man. Give my regards to your sister and tell her not to


tarry but to make haste to Our Lord. May our Lord be with us all, Amen.


"May the Holy Spirit inflame you with divine love and fully possess your soul in order that such sweet embraces which this so savory spouse always brings with Him may gain new strength in our souls, and so that we may walk under this so gentle yoke continually with new strength from God, and so that by this law of His we may hasten to attain that peace of God which surpasses all understanding, where God is seen de coram jusion(?) which is our soul - the house and temple wherein God continually and at every moment wishes to dwell and be renewed in us. And thus He commands us to appear empty and in reverence before Him, but always newly filled with great good things, satisfying and filling our mind, will, and understanding, so that we may continually feel the great goodness of God and so that there may be no other good thing for us but to draw nearer to this great good. For our Lord loves the inner things and silently teaches us that vain desires multiply in the soul, so that by His goodness He may teach us and make us His continual hearers and disciples; for if we hear this commandment we will learn to be hearers [of the Lord) and workers of His doctrine. Our Lord be with you all, Amen."


"Our Lord be with us all, Amen. And may He always give us [grace] so we may ever advance in the knowledge of Him, performing works worthy of His children; for He looks upon and wants us as such, and summons us so that when our works, which pertain to death, cease, He may work in us works of eternal life and He alone may be our life, our nourishment, our God, our Lord. For thus He promises us: it is I who will feed you - ego reficiam vos. For how can death live except in life? Thus there is nothing left for us but to flee ourselves and repose in Jesus Christ, or His law is gentle and His yoke so sweet that it surpasses all understanding. He wishes that we always delight and rest in Him and that we not love or want or desire


     any other thing except Him, with a wonderful peace through which God takes His own. For these are the fruits of the soul in which God dwells - to be peaceful, joyous, happy, trusting, splendid, great, full of all good things, wise, prudent, chaste, whole, holy, loving, gentle, hopeful of infinite mercies. With whom God our Lord dwells - oh, lady - what great and inestimable good things our Lord brings with Him. Let us receive Him well, for we have a good guest. Our Lord be with you, Amen. Keep silent and rejoice greatly, greatly, ab intus. Gratia Dei nobiscum semper, Amen."

     Glory be to our God and Lord. With such splendor may He be with all those who wish to join and unite themselves with Him, and those who keep always the light of His life before their eyes. Truly these cannot be said to live the life of men but of angels, as the Apostle Paul says of himself, finding himself full of this eternal life and consummate joy: It is no longer I that live but Christ that liveth in me. This is the ultimate and final aim of all spiritual life - to be so united and at one with God that He be the life by which men live and that He direct, govern, and command them, and that they have no other purpose but to obey and be faithful to all that their God and Lord shall command them. For in this way the soul gains a perfection of vision and knowledge which is inexplicable to those who do not know it and have not tasted it. Surely, lady sister, I have a desire to see you and a very great one to rejoice with you and I hope in our Lord that He may ordain its fulfillment. Write me very soon. Meanwhile may our Lord, in His infinite goodness, number us all among His chosen people, Amen.


"May the Holy Spirit be with you and give you, in a new way, to feel how gentle is God diligentibus etc. [enim?] for a very great thing is that which He often promises us: that if we will love Him He will come into us and will dwell in our hearts. Therefore, since He always comes into us and in a new way every moment, and with a new joy,


how we should hasten to receive such a magnificent Lord and to prepare our hearts in a new way - to free the heart of all worldly things, so that it may be filled and satisfied by its Creator and God, for such a soul is powerful and wise and rich and full of all good things. It is full of joy and burning fire, and kindled with the love of God. It neither thinks nor wants nor desires anything but to please its Blessed Spouse Jesus Christ our Lord. You know how much I want to see you but I know that He is more present with you and that He will never leave you, in whose presence all created things that are lacking and absent cause no regret. Therefore it does not disturb me much to be in these lands where God is very good. In all things I recommend that you seek counsel and confess with father Pedro Ortiz who is there at Saint Francis, for he is seldom absent. I know very well he will give you very good counsel. For the love of God do not fail to have your sister pray for me and let her hasten to thank the Spouse she chose, for surely the mercies of our Lord are all ineffable and inexpressible. Write me how things are going with you, for I shall be very happy to have your grace."

      CASTRO. In 1533 Diego Hernandez denounced Carega and Castro as heretical followers of Tovar. There was a student named Castro in the college of languages at the University of Alcala. He shared living quarters with Tovar's brother Francisco de Vergara, and was at least an acquaintance, if not a friend, of the Illuminist Francisco Gutierrez. Vergara proceso.

      CAZALLA, Agustin de. Doctor Agustin de Cazalla was the celebrated heretic who was burned at the stake in 1559 as the leader of the Lutheran movement in Valladolid. He came by his beliefs honestly enough; the son of Leonor de Bivero and Pedro de Cazalla, he was raised in the Illuminist atmosphere of the family home in Valladolid during the heyday of Francisca Hernandez. He studied at the College of San Pablo in Valladolid, where his teacher and confessor was Bartolome Carranza de Miranda, future archbishop of Toledo who was also to be tried by the Inquisition as a Lutheran. From school in Valladolid he went to the University of Alcala where he came to know Bernardino de Tovar. Cazalla took his bachillerato at Alcala in


1531, and his licenciado the following year. A fellow student, who took the same degrees with Cazalla, was Diego Lainez, the future Jesuit. Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso; Urriza.

      CAZALLA, Juan de. Bishop Juan de Cazalla, brother of Maria de Cazalla, was a fervent Erasmist and an important link between the Erasmists and Illuminists. A Franciscan friar and New Christian, he had been chaplain to Cardinal Ximenez de Cisneros. In 1509 he accompanied his militant superior on the latter's crusading expedition against the Moors at Oran, and wrote a detailed account of the Spanish capture of that city. By the early 1520's Cazalla was circulating widely among the Illuminists. In 1521 he was with Francisca Hernandez and Bernardino de Tovar in Valladolid. In 1523 he preached to the Illuminists in Pastrana, where he was lodged in the home of Geronimo de Olivares. In 1525 he preached at Navarrete, where he excited the admiration of Antonio de Medrano, who had been raising hell there after he left Francisca Hernandez in Valladolid. About 1526, following the dispersal of the apostolate at Medina de Rioseco, Cazalla and Diego Lopez Husillo allegedly decided to do missionary work abroad among the Moors, but got only as far as Portugal before turning back.

      During these years, Cazalla also did some writing. He collaborated with Maria Arias to produce a commentary on the evangel which was to win the praise of Philip Melanchthon. In 1528 he published his Lumbre del alma, a mystical tract whose extreme scarcity today like that of Juan de Valdes' Doctrina cristiana, indicates inquisitorial suppression.

For some years Bishop Cazalla waged a running battle with his fellow Franciscan, Francisco Ortiz. In 1523 Ortiz had preached a sermon at Alcala, attacking Erasmus' satires in The Praise of Folly on the life of the religious, and warning that such flippancies were seasoning for the cauldrons of Hell. This aroused the wrath of the Erasmists at Alcala and prompted the first unfriendly exchange of correspondence between Cazalla and Ortiz. In the years which followed, as Ortiz grew ever more attached to Francisca Hernandez and his paeans of praise for his "new Susanna" became increasingly extravagant, Cazalla began to get uneasy. Finally he wrote a strongly


worded protest to Ortiz, pointing out that not even the apostles had praised Christ so much as Ortiz was praising Francisca, and urging Ortiz to consider the honor and reputation of their order - if not of himself - before saying any more. But by this time Ortiz was tuned in to nothing but Francisca, and he replied with the zeal and conviction which guaranteed a continuation of hostilities.

      These events make the next step perfectly understandable. In 1530 Francisca Hernandez denounced Cazalla as an Illuminist. According to Francisca, Cazalla denied the value of fasting and disciplines, and maintained that oral prayer and other exterior acts of prayer, such as kneeling and bowing the head, were not necessary. Francisca's maid, Maria Ramirez, added her bit: two sons of Leonor de Bivero (one of whom was certainly Agustin de Cazalla) had been entrusted to the care of Bishop Cazalla at Alcala. The two boys were soon imbibing the unorthodox religious views of Cazalla's friend Bernardino de Tovar and began to write letters laced with Illuminist dogma to their father Pedro de Cazalla. Francisca Hernandez therefore advised Pedro de Cazalla to bring the boys back home before their young minds were corrupted by Illuminist doctrine and, according to Maria Ramirez, Pedro de Cazalla did as Francisca advised.

      In 1533 Diego Hernandez listed Cazalla as a heretic who had been wounded by Erasmus ("herido de Erasmo"). By this time the trial of Cazalla had almost certainly been under way for several years. In December 1534, the Fiscal of the Toledo Inquisition made a fleeting reference to the trial of Bishop Cazalla, but Cazalla died before his trial could be completed. Cazalla proceso; Medrano proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso; Nicolas Antonio; Bataillon, Erasmo; Biblioteca de autores espanoles; Enzinas, Memoires; Palau; Serrano y Sanz, "Alcaraz"; Ximimez de Cisneros, Cartas.

      CAZALLA, Maria de. Second in importance among the Illuminists of Guadalajara only to Isabel de la Cruz, Maria de Cazalla, like her brother Juan, forms another link between the Erasmists and the Illuminists of Toledo. She took to Erasmus, probably through her brother's influence, after she had already accepted Illuminism, and her trial by the Inquisition shares with that of Juan de Vergara the distinction of being a vehicle for the fusion (and confusion) of Eras-


mism, Illuminism and Lutheranism in the minds of Spain's inquisitors. Maria was seized in 1532, vigorously tortured, and sentenced in December, 1534, to perform public penance in her parish church and to pay fines totalling one hundred ducats.

      Contrary to accepted tradition, Maria de Cazalla does not appear to have been the aunt of the celebrated Cazallas burned at the stake as Protestants at the Valladolid auto de fe of 1559 (see Pedro de Cazalla, next entry). Cazalla proceso; Melgares Marin, Procedimientos; Serrano y Sanz, Apuntes.

      CAZALLA, Pedro de. Husband of Leonor de Bivero and, like his wife, deeply involved in the Illuminist movement of Valladolid, Pedro de Cazalla was a warm friend and admirer of Francisca Hernandez until their estrangement. He testified to the Inquisition in 1528 and 1530 against Francisca, Antonio de Medrano and Francisco Ortiz. Francisca and her friends denounced Cazalla in turn. Medrano told the inquisitors that Cazalla's father had once been reconciled by the Inquisition. Francisca reported that Cazalla shared the heretical view of Juan de Vergara about the worthlessness of papal bulls, and had the habit of making nasty remarks about the Inquisition. Maria Ramirez announced that she had heard Cazalla, in a towering rage against the Inquisition for questioning his qualifications for public office, curse the king as an idiot, the empress as a viper, all Inquisition officials as beggars, and express the hope that the comunero revolt would continue and the French declare war, so that the Inquisition might be destroyed. She also heard Cazalla describe bulls and indulgences as devices for wholesale thievery, and deny the need for praying, giving alms, and confessing one's sins. On the basis of the accusations of Francisca Hernandez and Maria Ramirez, the inquisitors voted to imprison Pedro de Cazalla. However, the Suprema refused to approve the decision, on grounds of insufficient evidence. Pedro de Cazalla thus escaped trial in 1534, and death spared him the agony and humiliation of the ultimate family disaster at Valladolid in 1559.

      It is always assumed that Pedro de Cazalla was the brother of Maria de Cazalla and that the latter was therefore the aunt of Agustin de Cazalla. I have been able to find only one reference in the documents


of this period to support this viewpoint: on September 22, 1530, Inquisitor Mejia of Toledo asked Maria Ramirez if she had ever heard Pedro de Cazalla read a letter written to him by his sister Maria de Cazalla. She replied in the affirmative, and went on to say that Pedro de Cazalla had visited Maria de Cazalla in Guadalajara, to advise her to withdraw from Illuminist activities, because of the threat of Inquisition investigation.

      However, Diego Hernandez, who said he went to Guadalajara in 1528 with Pedro de Cazalla, refers to the latter as a relative (not brother) of Maria de Cazalla. These two shreds of evidence are almost overwhelmed by the evidence against any blood relationship at all between Pedro and Maria de Cazalla. Maria, in giving her genealogy to the Toledo Inquisition, makes no mention of a brother - or any relative - named Pedro. We know also that Pedro de Cazalla had a brother named Francisco, from Logrono, who was still alive in 1531.

      The only Francisco de Cazalla in Maria's family was an uncle from Palma, who was dead in 1532, and very likely before that. Furthermore, the father of Maria de Cazalla had died no later than 1512, whereas the father of Pedro de Cazalla was still alive in 1520. Maria de Cazalla's family was from Palma del Rio (Seville), Ecija, and Cazalla; the family of Pedro de Cazalla was from Logrono and Malaga. Maria de Cazalla, whenever she referred to her brother Juan de Cazalla, always described him as her brother; on the only occasion when she spoke of Pedro de Cazalla, she described him merely as a "resident of Valladolid." It seems reasonable to conclude, therefore, that Maria de Cazalla and Pedro de Cazalla were certainly not brother and sister, and were probably not related at all, and that there are two unrelated and distinct Cazalla lines in the history of Spanish heterodoxy. Beteta proceso; Cazalla proceso; Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso.


      COMADRE. In June, 1533, Diego Hernandez named the bachiller de la Comadre as a heretic. This Comadre was one of the Illuminists of Guadalajara in the 1520s. Alcaraz proceso; Bivar proceso; Vergara proceso.


      CRUZ, Isabel de la. The original flower child, Isabel de la Cruz was the first major figure among the Illuminists. By 1512 she was teaching dejamiento in Guadalajara, where she made heavy inroads into the household of Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, third Duke of Infantado. Her influence extended beyond her native city of Guadalajara and throughout most of New Castile, where she was recognized as the inspiration for all the early Illuminists. Among her more famous disciples were Ruiz de Alcaraz, Diego de Barreda and Maria de Cazalla. She was seized by the Toledo Inquisition in 1524 and in 1529 was sentenced, along with Alcaraz, to life imprisonment.

      There is another Isabel de la Cruz, whom it is easy to confuse with the above. This other Isabel de la Cruz came as a young girl, with her older sister Maria, from Jaen to Toledo around 1521. Luis de Beteta, whose solicitude for Maria's welfare titillated everybody's dirty curiosity, obtained lodgings for them with the Illuminist beata Maria (Mayor) Garcia, who was the sister of Francisco Ximenez, and whose home was a meeting place for Illuminists in Toledo. As she grew to womanhood, Isabel fell in readily with the religious convictions of her new friends, with the result that she was tried by the Inquisition of Toledo and reconciled at an auto de fe in March, 1535. Alcaraz proceso; Beteta proceso; Longhurst, "La beata Isabel."

      CUETO, Rodrigo de. Rodrigo de Cueto, from Cordoba, taught logic and metaphysics at Alcala from 1518 to 1523 or 1524, and was the author of a textbook on logic, which was printed at the press of Miguel de Eguia in 1524. In 1520 or 1521 he had dined in Valladolid with Francisca Hernandez, Juan de Cazalla, Bernardino de *Tovar and Diego de Villareal. Some time in the early 1520s Cueto became a religious; by 1524 he had apparently left Alcala for Paris. Beteta proceso; Vergara proceso; Palau; Rujula; Urriza.

      DIAZ DE OLMEDILLA, Francisco. Son of Doctor Olmedilla, the cleric Francisco Diaz from Valladolid was one of the followers of Francisca Hernandez. He was also a friend of Gaspar de Lucena and Bernardino de Tovar, and apparently remained faithful to Tovar when the latter broke with Francisca Hernandez. In 1530 he was denounced as an Illuminist by Francisca, who told the Toledo


inquisitors that Diaz did not believe in prayer. Diaz was dead by July, 1532, although his name was mentioned in compromising circumstances before the Inquisition two years later. See also the entry OLMEDILLA. Medrano proceso; Petronila proceso; Vergara proceso.

      DIAZ, Manuel. See GASCON.

      ENRIQUEZ, Fadrique. Fadrique Enriquez, Admiral of Castile, was a patron of a wide variety of persons and movements. It was at his estate at Medina de Rioseco that the twelve apostles movement was stillborn. Longhurst, "Alumbrados of Toledo"; Menendez y Pelayo, Juan Boscan.

      DIONISIO, friar. See VAZQUEZ, Dionisio.

      EGIDIO, friar. See LOPEZ DE BEJAR, Gil.

      EGUIA, Diego de. Brother of Miguel de Eguia and like him, involved in the Illuminist movement. He knew Maria de Cazalla, Rodrigo de Bivar, Juan del Castillo, Diego Lopez Husillo, and Bernardino de Tovar, in whose trial he appeared as a witness. In 1533 he was included on the list of alleged Lutherans named to the Inquisition by Diego Hernandez. However, there is reason to doubt that Diego de Eguia was a very enthusiastic Illuminist. Neither Juan del Castillo nor Diego Lopez Husillo had much regard for him. Diego de Eguia himself found religious satisfaction elsewhere. When Ignatius Loyola came to Alcala in 1526, Diego used to invite him to his home and give him alms for the poor. In 1536, with his other brother Esteban, Diego joined Loyola in Venice and remained one of his most devoted followers for the remainder of his life. In Rome he served as confessor to Loyola, and until his death in 1556 Diego de Eguia was one of the most influential and highly regarded members of the Society of Jesus. Cazalla proceso; Medrano proceso; Petronila proceso; Vergara proceso; Goni Gaztambide; Loyola, Autobiografia.

      EGUIA, Miguel de. Two of the brothers of Miguel de Eguia Diego and Esteban - became Jesuits. His uncle became Saint Francis Xavier. Miguel distinguished himself for his heterodoxy. As printer at Alcala, he used his presses to print Erasmian literature in both Spanish and Latin; as a member of the informal court around Tovar, he took part in the unsuccessful apostolate at Medina de Rioseco. On the basis of the denunciations of Francisca Hernandez and Maria Ramirez in 1530, Miguel de Eguia was seized by the Valladolid


Inquisition, although he did make a deposition in the trial of Tovar. Bivar proceso; Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      ESPINOSA, Hernando de. Cleric of Guadalajara, who served as chaplain to the Duke of Infantado. He was named in 1525 as a defender of Isabel de la Cruz; he introduced Diego Hernandez into the Monastery of Santa Clara in Guadalajara, only to relieve Hernandez of that post when the latter violated his office by seducing one of the nuns. Diego, in 1533, denounced Espinosa as a heretic to the Toledo Inquisition. In that same year Espinosa testified as a favorable character witness for Maria de Cazalla, who used to confess to him, the Fiscal protesting that Espinosa should be disqualified as a witness on the ground that he was an Illuminist himself. There is no evidence that Espinosa was seized by the

      ESPINOSA, Diego de. One of the many employees (flageolet player - "chirimia") of the Duke of Infantado, and a member of the Illuminist group in Guadalajara. He testified in 1524 and in 1529 in the Inquisition's inquiry into the activities of Alcaraz and Isabel de la Cruz, with whom he had frequent contact. In 1533 he was denounced as a heretic by Diego Hernandez. Alcaraz proceso; Bivar proceso; Vergara proceso.

      FALCONI, Maria. The second wife of Garcia de Buytrago, treasurer of the Duke of Infantado. She was a long time (over 20 years) acquaintance of Alcaraz and, together with her daughters Elvira de Arteaga and Isabel de Machicao, took an active part in Illuminist activities in Guadalajara. She testified in favor of Alcaraz in 1526 and


1527, attesting to his good Christian character and orthodoxy. She was distantly related to Alcaraz by marriage, and was an Old Christian. Diego Hernandez included her and her two daughters on the list of heretics which he presented to the Toledo Inquisition in 1533. Alcaraz proceso; Bivar proceso; Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      FIGUEREDO, Catalina de. The widow of one Sotomayor, Catalina de Figueredo was described by Vergara as "fija de un fidalgo que tuvo mucho conoscimiento con el comendador evangelista de Cortona tio deste declarante teniendola tenencia de Consuegra." She was tried by the Toledo Inquisition for a crime whose nature we do not know, except that she was apparently not an Illuminist. From scattered references in three trials, we learn that Catalina was Portuguese (Figuereido? ), that her mother - and possibly her daughters - were also tried at the same time, and that Catalina was involved in the illicit exchange of messages and letters among the prisoners, most of her correspondence being with Tovar. Her case was voted upon early in 1533, but its final disposition was delayed by the Inquisition's discovery and investigation of the illegal traffic of letters in and out of the jail. Catalina was still in jail the following year: on September 3, 1534, the Fiscal asked that the Illuminist Petronila de Lucena be placed in a cell apart from Catalina, because the latter's influence was making Petronila an uncooperative witness. Cazalla proceso; Petronila proceso; Vergara proceso.

      FRANCISCO. The canon Francisco was, along with Pero Gutierrez and Pero Hernandez, one of the canons of Palencia denounced by Diego Hernandez in 1533. Maria de Cazalla identified canon Francisco as one of her correspondents, and Maria Ramirez named him as one of the persons present during an allegedly heretical conversation which Vergara had with Francisca Hernandez in Valladolid. Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      FRIAS, Alonso de. In 1532 Diego Hernandez identified Alonso de Frias as one of the heretical followers of Bernardino de Tovar. At that time Frias had already been under inquisitorial prosecution; in the trial of Francisco Ortiz there appears the testimony of Alonso de


Frias of Alcala, dated October 5, 1530, in which Frias testified to having heard Ortiz praise the many saintly qualities of Francisca Hernandez. A marginal notation alongside this testimony states that it was taken from the trial of Alonso de Frias. Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso.

      GAITO, Francisco. Servant of Juan de Vergara, Francisco Gaito was implicated in his master's efforts to bribe employees of the Inquisition. Vergara proceso.

      GALAS, Luis. In 1533 Diego Hernandez denounced Luis Galas as a heretic, along with Garcia de Vargas. Vergara proceso.

      GARZON, Alonso. Except for a brief mention (in the Cazalla proceso) of Garzon as confessor for Bernardino de Tovar, our only knowledge of him comes from Diego Hernandez' testimony in Vergara's trial. In 1532 Hernandez described Bernardino de Tovar as "grandfather" ("abuelo") to Garzon, by which he presumably meant that at Alcala University Tovar taught his heresies to Manuel de Miona and Miona in turn taught them to Garzon. Diego also said that Garzon was burned at the stake, the implication being that this occurred about 1530 or 1531. A marginal note to the testimony of Diego Hernandez refers to Alonso Garzon, "condemned," who maintained, among other things, that the apostles had not written the Credo. Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      GASCON. In 1524 the wife of Gascon, trumpet player ("trompetero") of the Duke of Infantado at Guadalajara, was named to the Inquisition as one of the many persons who communicated with Alcaraz and Isabel de la Cruz. Eight years later Diego Hernandez told the Toledo inquisitors that when Manuel de Miona left Alcala for Paris in about 1531, he took with him "another pretty student" from Alcala, whose name was Gascon or Manuel Diaz, "for he had two names." It appears that Gascon, a member of Tovar's circle at Alcala, fled Spain when some of his friends were seized by the Inquisition. Bivar proceso; Vergara proceso.


     GIL, friar. See LOPEZ DE BEJAR, Gil.

      GUEVARA, Catalina de. Wife of Bernardino de Velasco and one of the regular visitors of Francisca Hernandez at the Bivero-Cazalla home in Valladolid. When Francisca left the home of her benefactors in 1527, she went to live at Castrillo Tejeriego with dona Catalina de Guevara. She lived with the latter approximately a year and a half, until she (Francisca) was jailed by the Toledo Inquisition. Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso.

      GUMIEL, Cristobal de. Licentiate Cristobal de Gumiel, a cleric from Cuenca, became attached to Bernardino de Tovar and Francisca Hernandez in the early days at Salamanca, and was very possibly a student at the university there. When his friends moved to Valladolid in 1520, Gumiel kept up his close associations with them and also expanded his Illuminist horizons. In 1525 he learned Greek from Juan del Castillo in Toledo and came to know the Illuminists of that city.
Meanwhile he maintained close contact with his old friends Tovar and Francisca Hernandez, and when Tovar and Francisca parted company on a mutually hostile basis, Gumiel sided with Tovar. In March and May of 1530 he made a general denunciation of Francisca Hernandez and Antonio de Medrano, describing Francisca as an ignoramus whose unorthodox religious views should be silenced. Francisca in turn denounced Gumiel as a heretical follower of Tovar, and Medrano testified that Gumiel was motivated by jealousy, since Francisca liked Medrano best of all. When Juan de Vergara violated inquisitorial procedures by obtaining confidential information on the proceedings in Tovar's trial, it was Gumiel who acted as a go-between, obtaining the desired material from Pedro de Hermosilla and passing it on to Vergara. For his part in this affair Gumiel was jailed and a proceso was instituted against him, very likely in December, 1533. Gumiel readily confessed his guilt and was probably eventually freed. Beteta proceso; Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso.

      GUTIERREZ, Francisco Osorno. In 1530 Francisca Hernandez named one Gutierre[z], chaplain of the Marques de Villena, as one of


the Illuminists who used to visit her in Valladolid in the early 1520s. This same Gutierrez is also identified in the trial of Alcaraz as one of the Illuminists of Pastrana. He may be the cleric and bachiller Francisco Osorno Gutierrez, who appears in the middle and later 1520s among the Illuminists of Toledo and Alcala, where he was an intimate of Petronila and Gaspar de Lucena, Juan del Castillo, Dionisio Vazquez, Manuel de Miona, and Bernardino de Tovar, and who in 1530 was identified as a chamberlain of Archbishop Fonseca of Toledo. When the Toledo Inquisition was preparing its case against Tovar, Gutierrez was questioned in Alcala about his friend's activities. Almost immediately after Tovar's imprisonment in September, 1530, Gutierrez was summoned to Toledo for further questioning. Alarmed, he reported these events to Vergara and expressed his unfulfilled wish to flee Spain. In November, 1530, he was again questioned at Toledo, and admitted telling Vergara about his two previous appearances before the Inquisition in the Tovar investigation. Gutierrez was still at liberty in September 1531. By April 10, 1532, he was in jail. The following month Diego Hernandez denounced him as a heretical satellite of Tovar, with the unsolicited intelligence that Gutierrez was also an ignoramus and a fool. In April, 1533, Gutierrez was implicated in the passing of letters and notes among the prisoners inside the Toledo jail. In June of that year his name appeared on Diego Hernandez' second list of Lutheran heretics. He was still a prisoner at the end of October, 1533, but after that date we lose sight of him. A brief extract from the trial of Gutierrez appears in the trial of Vergara. Alcaraz proceso; Cazalla proceso; Petronila proceso; Vergara proceso.

      GUTIERREZ, Pero. One of the canons of Palencia (see canon Francisco and canon Pero Hernandez) denounced by Diego Hernandez in 1533. Gutierrez was one of the would-be apostles of Medina de Rioseco and was probably first denounced to the Toledo Inquisition by Francisca Hernandez in 1530. Beteta proceso; Vergara proceso.

      HERMOSILLA, Pedro de. Bachiller Pedro de Hermosilla, notary of the Toledo Inquisition, was bribed by Vergara to disclose secret


details of Tovar's trial. Like the others involved in this deception, Hermosilla was jailed in 1533 and a proceso was begun against him. Hermosilla confessed his guilt and pleaded for mercy. However, in 1535, he was still in jail and trying very hard to please his captors. On April 29 he asked for an audience with the inquisitors in order to make a voluntary denunciation of a fellow prisoner, the Burgundian priest Hugo de Celso, on trial for Lutheranism. Hermosilla reported that Celso did not recite his canonical hours in jail, expressed doubts about the authenticity of the donation of Constantine, boasted about his prowess with nuns and other women, and said many unkind things about the Inquisition. We do not know if these revelations helped the cause of Pedro de Hermosilla, but there is no doubt they added to the already considerable woes of Hugo de Celso. Celso proceso; Vergara proceso.

      HERNANDEZ, Alonso. In 1532 Francisca Hernandez mentioned Alonso Hernandez from Salamanca as one of the persons she had previously denounced. Alonso Hernandez may have been one of the group around Francisca and Antonio de Medrano at Salamanca during the years immediately prior to 1520. Vergara proceso.

      HERNANDEZ, Diego. Nobody has ever had any kind words to say for Diego Hernandez, and this is not the time to start. This strange man and priest, of sordid habits and baroque speech, represents, as does Antonio de Medrano, the spirit of psychopathic sexuality which occasionally turns up among cultists. When he was seized by the Inquisition of Toledo, he made such extensive and sweeping denunciations that his captors were convinced (if they hadn't been already) of the existence of a vast "Lutheran" network in Spain, made up of Illuminists and Erasmists.

      HERNANDEZ, Francisca. I think Vergara was right - she was a chippy, but deadly, because people were willing to believe her.

      HERNANDEZ, Pero. One of the canons of Palencia denounced as Lutherans by Diego Hernandez in 1533, Pero Hernandez was an intimate associate of Diego del Castillo and Juan del Castillo and, like


them, implicated in the apostolate at Medina de Rioseco. Beteta proceso; Vergara proceso.

      HURTADO DE MENDOZA, Diego. The Mendoza family of Guadalajara was one of the most aristocratic and influential in Spain, many of its members holding high posts in both church and state. Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, third Duke of Infantado, lent the prestige of his name to the Illuminist movement in and around Guadalajara in the 1520s. Many of the leading Illuminists, such as Isabel de la Cruz, Maria de Cazalla and Diego Hernandez, made successful inroads at the ducal palace. Not only the duke, but virtually all the members of his Guadalajara household and most of his relatives, were implicated in the Illuminist movement, and the family homestead bustled with Illuminist activities.

      The duke himself, in his senile and amber old age, took into his home one Maria Maldonado, a young lady of lowly origin and lofty ambition. Maria, whose nickname La Maldonada ("the poorly gifted") was probably bestowed upon her by her hostile in-laws, had an interesting background. Her aunt, Juana Maldonado, was a well known seeress of Guadalajara who used to apply visionary therapy to the ailments of the aging duke. In her visions she also used to see her "gypsy girl" ("gitana") La Maldonada, beloved by the duke, and Saint John the evangel, (gypsy and saint) side by side in celestial discourse.

      In 1525 Juana Maldonado was seized by the Toledo Inquisition and after a brief trial was penanced as an illusionary on March 28 of that year.

      Although the duke's age and infirmities prevented him from showing La MaLdonada the full measure of his devotion, he made ample compensation by showering his gypsy girl with everything she could want. At her request, Petro nil a de Lucena was brought to the family diggings, as were other Illuminists. Although La MaLdonada was not his wife, the duke insisted that his children and all his other kin call her "Duchess" and treat her accordingly. Maria Maldonado, for her part, concentrated her efforts on the task of separating the duke from his fortune. The duke's children, in a state of frustration and frenzy, sought to persuade their father to remove the gypsy girl from the premises.


Finally, the duke agreed to do whatever was necessary to preserve the family honor. But to the dismay of his anxious heirs, he legalized his arrangements with la Maldonada by marrying her in January of 1531.

      The following August, the old duke died, and the family home and title passed to his eldest son, Inigo Lopez de Mendoza, fourth Duke of Infantado. Maria Maldonado understandably left the family estate.

      She went to Valladolid where she married a local official named Francisco Santiesteban, by whom she had two daughters. However, Maria had taken with her a great many jewels and tapestries given her by the duke. The latter's heirs went to court to reclaim these properties, but after years of legal bickering, they were completely unsuccessful. So la Maldonada remained a wealthy woman, living happily in Valladolid and continuing to call herself "the Duchess," to the eternal discomfiture of the duke's heirs. Maldonado proceso; Petronila proceso; Vergara proceso; Layna Serrano, Historia de Guadalajara.

      INFANTADO, Duke of. See HURTADO DE MENDOZA, Diego.

      LASO DE OROPESA, Martin. Denounced by Diego Hernandez in 1532 and 1533 as a heretical follower of Tovar, Oropesa spent seven of his youthful years in the service of Bishop Juan de Cazalla, and also studied at the University of Alcala. He then entered the service of Archbishop Fonseca of Toledo. He appeared as a witness in the trial of Bernardino de Tovar. He testified in the trial of Maria de Cazalla, whom he had known through her brother the bishop, but the Toledo Fiscal moved to disqualify his testimony on the ground that Oropesa himself had been denounced to the Inquisition as an Illuminist. After the death of Archbishop Fonseca in 1534 Oropesa became secretary to dona Maria de Mendoza and accompanied her to Paris and Breda, during which period he published in Flanders a Spanish translation of Lucan's Pharsalia. In 1546 he was in Rome as secretary to Cardinal Francisco de Bobadilla y Mendoza, a post which he held until his death, probably in 1554. Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso; Nicolas Antonio; Bataillon, Erasmo.


      LEON, Francisco de. Son of a silversmith of Toledo, the cleric and converso Francisco de Leon moved among the Illuminists of Toledo and Alcala, where he apparently attended the university. Through Tovar he came to know Francisca Hernandez in Valladolid and when Tovar and Francisca broke up, Leon apparently sided with Francisca. Beteta proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso.

      LERMA, Pedro de. The Erasmist Pedro de Lerma was abbot of the Church of San Justo y Pastor at the University of Alcala and first chancellor of the university. He supported the Erasmists at Valladolid in 1527 and served on the commission which approved the Doctrina cristiana of Juan de Valdes in 1529. He was swept along with the anti-Erasmian tide of the 15305 and was definitely regarded by the Inquisition as suspect in 1533. In 1537 he retired at the age of 70 as chancellor at Alcala, only to be seized soon afterward by the Inquisition. He was accused of introducing Erasmian opinions into his sermons, including the assertion that confession was not of divine, but of positive law. He was found guilty and was required to make public recantation of eleven propositions qualified as heretical, scandalous and wicked. After this experience Doctor Lerma left Spain, returning to the Sorbonne, where he had once been dean of the theology faculty. Here he spent his remaining four years, refusing to return to Spain where, he said, men of learning could not live in such a climate of persecution. Bivar proceso; Vergara proceso; Enzinas, Memoires; Longhurst, Juan de Valdes.

      LOPEZ, Ines. The beata Ines Lopez, of converso origin, was the daughter of a Valladolid citizen named Alonso de Villanueva. From 1521 to 1525 she was in the service of Francisca Hernandez and participated in the Illuminist festivities over which her mistress presided. In 1523 she perjured herself before the Valladolid inquisitors by insisting that Francisca Hernandez had never violated the inquisitorial order forbidding her to see Medrano. However, in 1528, having quarreled with Francisca and left her service, she testified at great length to Francisca's lascivious behavior with both Medrano and Francisco Ortiz (with Medrano I can easily believe; with Ortiz I cannot feel so sure), as well as to a number of more prosaic irregulari-


ties, such as Francisca's refusal to observe fast days and her disregard of Church precepts. Medrano, Ortiz and Francisca retaliated with an unflattering picture of Ines' personal habits. They described her as a low type who hated her mother sufficiently to throw her down a flight of stairs. Francisca, out of compassion for Ines or her mother, took the young lady into her employ and tried to straighten her out.

      It took Francisca four years to realize how lazy Ines was; although she was expected to work about the house, Ines refused to lift a finger unless she was paid for it. So Francisca finally sent Ines packing in 1525, and in the natural course of human events Ines took her revenge by denouncing Francisca Hernandez to the Inquisition. Beteta proceso; Medrano proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso.

      LOPEZ DE BEJAR, Gil. The Franciscan friar Gil Lopez de Bejar, a favorite preacher of Charles V, was early associated with the humanists at the University of Alcala and appeared as a defender of Erasmus at the Valladolid conference of 1527. He also had close ties with such Illuminists as Ruiz de Alcaraz, Maria de Cazalla, Tovar, Diego Lopez Husillo, and Francisca Hernandez; so, like his friend and fellow Franciscan Juan de Cazalla, he constituted another link between these two groups. When the Tovar-Francisca Hernandez axis was broken, Gil Lopez de Bejar chose to support his Alcala friends, and in the mutual denunciations which followed, Bejar contributed his share. In 1529 he denounced Francisca Hernandez and Francisco Ortiz, expressing his repugnance to the lavish praises which Ortiz was wont to heap on Francisca. He also spoke of the spurious thaumaturgic powers of Antonio de Medrano: it seems that when Bejar once confided to Medrano that he was bothered by certain temptations of the flesh, Medrano went into a self-induced trance which he claimed would cure Bejar of his temptations. Ortiz and Medrano, in their turn, had a few things to report about Bejar. Ortiz told the Toledo inquisitors that Bejar's unfriendly attitude had developed only after he and his friend Diego Lopez Husillo had broken with their once beloved Francisca Hernandez. A year later (1530) Ortiz spoke of Bejar's claim that he had once used a handkerchief given him by Francisca Hernandez to wipe the face and thereby cure the fever - of a sick friend. Medrano revealed that


Bejar used to talk of how he worshipped God and Francisca Hernandez and how Bejar and his friends, Vergara and Tovar, used to kiss Francisca's hand with blissful regularity. Francisca and her maid, Maria Ramirez, implicated Bejar in the allegedly heretical conversations between Francisca and Juan de Vergara in Valladolid.

      By 1530, however, Gil Lopez de Bejar had left Spain with the imperial court. At Augsburg his role in the discussions with Philip Melanchthon regarding the Augsburg Confession attracted the favorable notice of the Nuremberg reformer Andrew Osiander. In a letter to his colleagues dated July 4, 1530, Osiander expressed his satisfaction that the emperor's preacher (Bejar) "approves all of our doctrine and tells us not to lose our spirit." In January, 1532, the Toledo inquisitors, through their proxies in Brussels, questioned Bejar about the testimony of Francisca Hernandez in which she had named Bejar as one of the witnesses to a supposedly heretical conversation between herself and Juan de Vergara. The recent and current prosecutions in Spain had obviously not escaped Bejar's notice; he replied that he had never been present at any such conversation, although he had once cautioned his friend Vergara to moderate some of his criticisms of papal indulgences.

      The name of Gil Lopez de Bejar was certain to come before the Toledo inquisitors again. In 1532 Diego Hernandez reported that Bejar had once told Maria de Cazalla that it would be better for her daughters to become harlots than nuns, and in 1535 Luis de Beteta said he had heard Bejar preach a sermon in Toledo in which he maintained that it was heresy to say that God had sent His Son to earth in order to be killed. The Toledo inquisitors, the year before, had already expressed the opinion that Gil Lopez de Bejar should be questioned about his visits of a decade before to Francisca Hernandez in Valladolid, but apparently the good friar's high standing with Emperor Charles V saved him from any further troubles. Alcaraz proceso; Beteta proceso; Cazalla proceso; Medrano proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso; Bataillon, Erasmo; Loyola, autobiografia.

      LOPEZ DE CALAIN, Juan. A cleric from Vizcaya, Juan Lopez de Calain began his Illuminist career in Guadalajara, where he served as a chaplain in the household of the Duke of Infantado and shared his


fellow employees' enthusiasm for Isabel de la Cruz and Ruiz de Alcaraz. When the latter two were seized by the Inquisition, Lopez transferred his heterodox affections to Tovar and Francisca Hernandez and took a leading role in organizing and recruiting for the apostolate at Medina de Rioseco. Some time later he accepted the position of bishop's vicar in Granada and chaplain of the royal chapel of that city. It appears reasonable, as Bataillon suggests, that Lopez owed this appointment to Archbishop (of Granada) Pedro de Alba, whom Juan de Valdes used as the protagonist and persuasive exponent of Erasmian Christianity in his Doctrina cristiana.

     Pedro de Alba died in June, 1528, and it was probably shortly afterward that Lopez was seized and jailed as an Illuminist by the Inquisition of Granada. A brief extract of his proceso in the Medrano trial, dated Granada, February 6, 1529, makes it clear that Lopez was then a prisoner in that city. Very soon after that Lopez bribed his jailer and succeeded in escaping jail. He showed up briefly in Toledo and in Alcala, where he put up at the home of his friend Miguel de Eguia. He must have been tracked down by the Toledo inquisitors, for by March 17, 1530 (and probably earlier) he was in their custody.

      From Toledo he was sent back to the authorities at Granada, where he was summarily burned at the stake, some time before September of that year. It is not likely that Juan Lopez was burned because his heresies were more serious than those of his contemporaries; the Spanish inquisitors took a dim view of those who fled their authority and, as happened also with Juan del Castillo, they were inclined to mete out the most serious punishment to runaways.

      Bataillon, relying on Boehmer, places Juan Lopez de Calain among the Illuminists of Pastrana in 1525 and 1526. However, in the original Ortiz trial, which Boehmer used, the Juan Lopez in question was quite another person. He was the bachiller Juan Lopez, who testified in February, 1525, to the Illuminist activities in Pastrana, and ratified that testimony in Pastrana on September 18, 1530 - after Juan Lopez de Calain had been burned at the stake in Granada. We learn also, from other trials of this period, that this bachiller Juan Lopez was married to Agueda Ximenez, of the Illuminist Ximenez clan of Pastrana (see Francisco Ximenez), that he and his wife were devotees of Alcaraz, Isabel de la Cruz, and Maria de Cazalla, and that bachiller


Juan Lopez was still living in 1533, three years after the death of Juan Lopez de Calain. Alcaraz proceso; Beteta proceso; Bivar proceso; Cazalla proceso; Medrano proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso; Bataillon, Erasmo; Boehmer, Franzisca Hernandez; Serrano y Sanz, "Alcaraz."

      LOPEZ HUSILLO, Diego. Also known as Diego Lopez de Toledo, de la Fuente, and de Husillos. He was a native of Toledo and a member of the Franciscan Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes of that city. Like his friend Tovar, he had been an admirer of Francisca Hernandez in Valladolid; whenever he visited her he used to stay at the home of Alonso Perez de Bivero. In about 1525 he did some ambitious recruiting for the apostolate at Medina de Rioseco. When Tovar broke with Francisca Hernandez, Diego Lopez and his fellow Franciscan Gil Lopez de Bejar became active propagandists against their former mistress. According to Francisco Ortiz, who described Diego as a "ravening wolf," the latter even went to Inquisitor General Manrique and to Emperor Charles V with his complaints against Francisca Hernandez.

      Diego Lopez' movements following the failure of the apostolate at Medina de Rioseco are difficult to trace. According to Medrano, Lopez and Bishop Juan de Cazalla planned a tour abroad to convert the Moors but got only as far as Portugal before turning back. On February 16 and 17, 1529, Lopez made a lengthy denunciation to the Inquisition of Francisca Hernandez and Antonio de Medrano, not only for erotic irregularities, but for violating Church rules such as the prohibition against eating meat on forbidden days. Although the place of this testimony does not appear in the original manuscript, the handwriting appears to be that of the Toledo notary Francisco Ximenez, and several other items of internal evidence point to Toledo.

      Very soon after, Diego Lopez was in Granada, where he was seized by the Granada Inquisition almost immediately. On May 4, 1529, he was confessing to his previous devotion to Francisca Hernandez.

      During his trial he also made periodic denunciations of Francisca, while in Toledo the latter was denouncing Lopez as a heretical Illuminist disciple of Tovar and a Lutheran whose ambition was to join


Luther in Germany. Lopez' trial was still going on in May, 1530, and in October of the same year, Medrano in Toledo mentioned Lopez as still being a prisoner of the Granada Inquisition. There is a vague implication that his trial had been concluded by February 20, 1533, when Ruiz de Alcaraz referred to Lopez as having been seized and "punished" by the Inquisition. We learn also from a statement by Luis de Beteta in 1538 that Lopez was "penanced" by the Granada Inquisition, a much less serious punishment than was meted out to his companion Juan Lopez de Calain. Beteta proceso; Cazalla proceso; Medrano proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso.

      LOPEZ PACHECO, Diego. Diego Lopez Pacheco, second Marques of Villena, was descended from an illustrious line of conversos, two of whom were masters of the monastic military orders of Santiago and Calatrava during the reign of Henry IV of Castile. During the early 1520's, Diego Lopez Pacheco was the Maecenas for the Illuminists of Escalona and the financial supporter of Ruiz de Alcaraz. He was also a staunch partisan of Erasmus when the latter was under attack at Valladolid in 1527. Juan de Valdes, who made his first Illuminist contacts in the household of the marques, dedicated to him his controversial Doctrina cristiana in 1529. Longhurst, Juan de Valdes; Melgares Marin, Procedimientos.

      LUCENA, Gaspar de. Brother of Juan del Castillo and also active among both Illuminists and Erasmists. By early 1532 he had been seized by the Toledo Inquisition and was reconciled at a public auto de fe in 1535. His trial is lost, but excerpts from it appear in the Vergara proceso. Longhurst, "Alumbrados of Toledo."

      LUCENA, Petronila de. The sister of Gaspar de Lucena and Juan del Castillo, Petronila de Lucena shared her brothers' religious interests. She was arrested by the Toledo Inquisition in 1534 as a result of her association with her brothers, and of the denunciations made against her by Diego Hernandez. She persisted in maintaining her innocence and was released (permanently) on bail in 1535, although she was never formally acquitted of the charges against her. Petronila proceso.


      LUIS, Pero. An associate, perhaps from Alcala, of Bernardino de Tovar, although not a religious. He was picked up by the Inquisition at the same time as Tovar (September 1530), and was brought with Tovar to the Toledo jail. The investigations of 1533 into irregularities in the Inquisition jail revealed that Luis and Tovar were carrying on a voluminous clandestine correspondence, that Luis was delivering some of Tovar's letters to Maria de Cazalla in the latter's cell, and that Luis had, in his own cell, a copy of Juan de Valdes' proscribed Doctrina cristiana. In August, 1533, Luis was still a prisoner, but we do not know his ultimate fate. Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      MACHICAO, Isabel de. Isabel, the widow of Machicao, was the daughter of Garcia de Buytrago and stepdaughter of Maria Falconi.

      Like her stepmother and her half-sister Elvira de Arteaga, Isabel was a follower of Alcaraz and Isabel de la Cruz in Guadalajara. When Diego Hernandez denounced her in 1533, she had already been dead for several years. Alcaraz proceso; Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      MARQUINA, Pedro de. Pedro de Marquina, native of Mondragon, was an Old Christian and an hidalgo. While still a boy, he entered the service of the Marques of Villena at Escalona. He there impressed the other members of the household with his religious fervor and his ambition to become a friar. When Alcaraz came to Escalona in 1523, Marquina fell under his influence and became an enthusiastic practitioner of dejamiento; at mass he would remain rigid in his place, without praying, kneeling, or crossing himself, in imitation of his mentor. During the trial of Alcaraz, Marquina's role in Illuminist affairs at Escalona naturally came to the attention of the Toledo inquisitors. In February of 1529 he was questioned closely about his religious views and apparently managed to convince the inquisitors that if he had erred in the past it was through ignorance, and that he had long since returned to orthodox ways.

      Bataillon tells us of a Marquina who was a member of the imperial embassy in Rome around 1540 and who served as an intermediary to Ignatius Loyola for the correspondence of the aborning Society of Jesus with Spain. This same Marquina, as canon of Cuenca in 1561, built the Jesuit college in that city. Bataillon wonders if this could be


the Marquina who was connected with Alcaraz in the 1520s. This is quite possible, in view of the attraction which Loyola exercised for other Illuminists, such as Manuel de Miona and Diego de Eguia. The possibility is considerably strengthened by the fact that Brandi identifies Loyola's supporter as Pedro de Marquina. Alcaraz proceso; Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso; Bataillon, Erasmo; Brandi, Charles V.

      MEDRANO, Antonio de. The erotic male counterpart and spiritual twin of Francisca Hernandez, Medrano shared with his mistress the leadership of the Illuminist movement at Salamanca and Valladolid.

      His long trial - actually a series of trials - reads like pages from Krafft-Ebing. Between 1519 and 1532 he was tried by the Inquisition tribunals of Valladolid, Logrono and Toledo. He was last sentenced by the Toledo tribunal on April 21, 1532, on which date he abjured de vehementi in a public auto de fe, and was sentenced to life imprisonment. He was placed in a monastery in Toledo, there to serve out his term. The inquisitors were soon faced with vociferous objections from the friars there, who complained that Medrano was importing women into the monastery for his pleasures. Unable to find another monastery willing to receive their prisoner, the inquisitors sent Medrano to the Franciscan monastery in his home town of Navarrete in 1534. Three years later Medrano was given permission to circulate in town, provided only that he return to the monastery every evening. In 1539 his sentence was further modified and he was required only to spend each Friday night at the monastery. Medrano proceso.

      MEJIA, Alonso. Toledo inquisitor, one of the trial judges in Vergara's case. Mejia was also in charge of the investigation of Ignatius Loyola in Alcala in 1526 and 1527. Fidel Fita, who wrote up that investigation, also published a description of two cases of blasphemy tried by Mejia in 1532 and 1533, in which Mejia meted out sentences which, in the opinion of Fita, demonstrated that Alonso Mejia Was an unusually severe judge of those who appeared before him. Fita, "Alonso Mejia."

      MENCIA, Dona. See BAEZA, Mencia de.


      MENDOZA, Pedro de. In 1533 Diego Hernandez denounced don Pedro de Mendoza, deceased, classifying him specifically as an Erasmist. This is presumably the don Pedro de Mendoza, Count of TendiIla, third son of lnigo Lopez de Mendoza (fourth Duke of Infantado), and a member of the famous Mendoza clan of Guadalajara. Vergara proceso; Layna Serrano, Historia de Guadalajara.

      MIONA, Manuel de. Miona was a Portuguese priest and professor at the University of Alcala. He was strongly attracted to Ignatius Loyola at Alcala in 1526 and 1527, serving as his confessor there and also later in Paris. There is little doubt that Miona was one of the important figures in the Illuminist movement; it was on his advice that Loyola agreed to read the Enchiridion of Erasmus, favorite literature of the Illuminists (such as could read). Miona's name appears on several occasions in the extant trial records of this period. The most serious evidence of his implication in the Illuminist movement appears in a statement made by Diego Hernandez before the Toledo inquisitors. Hernandez described Miona as a poverty stricken wine bibber and a close friend of Tovar. According to Hernandez, Miona learned his Illuminist heresies from Tovar and in turn taught these same heresies to Alonso Garzon. When Tovar was seized by the Inquisition and Garzon was burned at the stake, Miona fled Spain and went to Paris, where he ultimately joined Loyola and became a member of the new Society of Jesus in 1544. Vergara proceso; Loyola Autobiografia.

      MOHEDANO, Hernando. A clerical friend of Tovar, denounced in 1530 by Francisca Hernandez. Vergara proceso.

      MONDRAGON, Orsinaga de. Illuminist of Guadalajara, denounced by Diego Hernandez. He was a servant of don Alonso de la Cerda and his wife Maria Arias. Mondragon's wife, "la de Mondragon," was also associated with the Guadalajara Illuminists. So too was Mondragon's mother in law, who claimed that she had more revelations than Saint Brigid, who had a lot. In 1526, Mondragon testified to the orthodox Christian behavior of his old friend Ruiz de Alcaraz; the Toledo Fiscal sought to disqualify Mondragon as a witness on the ground


that he was a known Illuminist. However, the Inquisition seems to have made no effort to process Mondragon. Alcaraz proceso; Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      MORA, Francisco de. In 1532 Diego Hernandez named Mora as a servant and heretical satellite of Bernardino de Tovar. This is probably the canon Francisco de Mora who previously had communication with Alcaraz and Isabel de la Cruz. Alcaraz proceso; Vergara proceso.

      MORENO. According to Francisca Hernandez, when Vergara told Francisca in Valladolid of his predilections for Luther, among those present were Gil Lopez de Bejar "and a Companion of his whose name she believes was friar Moreno, [Franciscan] preacher." Vergara proceso.

      NUNEZ, Francisco. Father of Pero Nunez (next entry). He was named by Diego Hernandez as a heretic in 1533. By June 1535 he had been reconciled by the Inquisition, but we can only infer that it was for the same Illuminist habits which are found in his son. Beteta proceso; Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      NUNEZ, Pero. Son of Francisco Nunez (previous entry), the Toledo cleric Pero Nunez travelled among the Illuminists of Toledo in the 1520s, and perhaps took instruction in Greek from Juan del Castillo. He also found time to worship at the shrine of Francisca Hernandez in Valladolid, but forsook her in favor of his friend Tovar.

      Francisca denounced Nunez in 1530 but we have no evidence that he suffered the fate of his father.

      There is another Pero Nunez, "contador" of the Marques of Escalona, whom Alcaraz described as a nut ("aficionado") on false miracles. Alcaraz proceso; Beteta proceso; Vergara proceso.

      NUNEZ DE GUZMAN, Hernan. Also known as the "comendador griego" and "el Pinciano," from his birthplace. Hernan Nunez de Guzman, "comendador" of the Order of Santiago, was one of Spain's greatest Renaissance humanists. A Biblical scholar, well versed in


Hebrew, Arabic and Greek, he taught Greek at the University of Alcala and played an important part in the preparation of the Complutensian Polyglot Bible. After the failure of the Comunero revolt, which he had supported, Nunez left Alcala and took refuge in Salamanca; on his death in 1553 he left his large library to the University of Salamanca. Juan de Vergara was one of Nunez' pupils at Alcala, and undoubtedly inherited his master's tradition of critical scholarship. This probably accounts for the implied denunciation of Nunez in Bernardino de Flores' accusation that Vergara seriously questioned Saint Augustine's knowledge of Greek. It does not surprise us to find that Diego Hernandez included Hernan Nunez on his 1533 list of Lutherans. Vergara proceso; Bataillon, Erasmo; Bell, Luis de Leon.

      OLIVARES, Geronimo de. The cleric, bachiller Geronimo de Olivares, was a brother of Francisco Ximimez. He was one of the leading Illuminists of his native city of Pastrana and also kept up regular contacts with the Illuminists of neighboring towns, particularly Alcaraz at Escalona, Diego de Barreda at Cifuentes, Isabel de la Cruz and Maria de Cazalla at Guadalajara, and Bernardino de Tovar at Alcala. Olivares was a worrisome type, always shopping about for a cure for his inner turmoil. Late in 1523, on the recommendation of Francisco Ortiz, he visited Francisca Hernandez in Valladolid, hoping that she could calm his turbulent spirit. During the Toledo Inquisition's investigations of Illuminist activities in 1524 and 1525, Olivares was questioned on five separate occasions, and confessed to neglecting oral prayer and practicing recogimiento. When Tovar broke with Francisca Hernandez, Olivares did likewise, which helps explain why Francisca denounced him in 1530 as a heretic who clung pertinaciously (as is the way with heretics) to the errors of Tovar despite Francisca's attempts to save his soul for orthodoxy. However, Olivares does not seem to have been molested by the Inquisition, nor does his widowed mother, who shared her son's religious enthusiasms. Alcaraz proceso; Beteta proceso; Bivar proceso; Cazal1a proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso.


      OLMEDILLA. In 1532 and 1533 Diego Hernandez included on his lists of Lutherans the bachiller Olmedilla. This is probably not Francisco Diaz de Olmedilla, because he was always referred to as Francisco Diaz, rather than Olmedilla. There are two other possible candidates: the father of Francisco Diaz, Doctor Olmedilla of Valladolid, and an unnamed brother of Francisco, who was also devoted to Francisca Hernandez, and who, according '0 the testimony of Antonio de Medrano, was in Rome in March, 1530. Could he have fled Spain when the Inquisition revived its prosecutions in 1529 and 1530? Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso.

      ORTEGA, Juan de. Alcaide of the Toledo Inquisition, Ortega was deeply involved in the smuggling of letters between Vergara and Tovar and in the shenanigans inside the jails. He was imprisoned for his part in this affair by May, 1533. Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      ORTIZ, BIas. Doctor Bias Ortiz was a member of the committee of theologians which passed sentence on Vergara, although Ortiz held out unsuccessfully for mitigation of Vergara's sentence. Doctor Ortiz himself was a humanist and scholar. Bataillon, Erasmo.

      ORTIZ, Francisco. Francisco Ortiz was an outstanding preacher of the Franciscan order and a man of great promise for the future, when his entire career was altered as a result of his meeting Francisca Hernandez in 1523. He fell so completely under her spell that he could not restrain his praises of her saintly qualities, both in private and public. His friends and superiors within the order tried everything in their power to force him to break his ties with Francisca, but the harder they tried, the more determined Ortiz became to sing the praises of his "New Susanna." When the Toledo inquisitors arrested Francisca, Ortiz delivered a sermon in Toledo on April 7, 1529, in which he roundly abused the inquisitors for their action. This resulted in the arrest of Ortiz and the initiation of a long proceso against him. For three years Ortiz remained completely unrepentant, insisting that Francisca Hernandez was a true servant of God and describing her detractors as filthy renegades, traitors, and wolves in sheep's clothing. Finally, however, he changed his tune, confessed his


errors, and begged for mercy. He was required to abjure de vehementi, was forbidden to exercise his priestly functions for five years, and was imprisoned for two years in the convent of Torrelaguna.

      When the restrictions against Ortiz were finally removed, he chose to continue his hermit's existence, spending the rest of his life in solitude at Torrelaguna, where he died in 1546. Ortiz proceso; Boehmer, Franzisca Hernandez.

      SPECIAL NOTE: While this present book was in press, I learned from friends that Angela Selke de Sanchez has just published a "stupendous" and "very important" volume: El Santo Oficio de la Inquisicion - iI proceso de fray Francisco Ortiz, 1529-1532. I have not seen this work, but I have no doubt that it is thorough.

      ORTIZ, Gutierre. Doctor Gutierre Ortiz was professor of arts and theology at the College of Santa Catalina in Toledo, and was one of the students in Juan del Castillo's Greek class in 1525. He participated in the Illuminist movement at Guadalajara, Alcala and Toledo, and was one of the persons whom Juan Lopez de Calain tried (apparently without success) to recruit for the apostolate at Medina de Rioseco. In 1533 Diego Hernandez included him on the list of Lutherans which he named to the Toledo inquisitors. His name was mentioned several times in the trial of Luis de Beteta, and on October 9, 1538, he appeared as a witness and testified to his low opinion of Beteta's talents as a theologian. At that time he was still in his teaching post at Santa Catalina, and was probably never bothered by the Inquisition. Alcaraz proceso; Beteta proceso; Vergara proceso.

      ORTIZ, Miguel. Doctor and licentiate Miguel Ortiz, priest of the chapel of San Pedro in Toledo, had been a fervent devotee of Francisca Hernandez and Antonio de Medrano in the early days at Salamanca. In 1525 he was among the Greek students of Juan del Castillo at the College of Santa Catalina. When his friend Tovar broke with Francisca Hernandez, Ortiz very likely followed suit, for in 1530 Francisca denounced him as an Illuminist follower of Tovar. A few months later Ortiz testified at length to the improper behavior of Francisca and Medrano in Salamanca and Valladolid, and admitted


that he used to give money to Francisca and revere her as a saint. We next hear of Miguel Ortiz in 1533, when Vergara named him as one of his attorneys. The following year Ortiz admitted to the Toledo inquisitors that he had known Vergara was exchanging secret correspondence with Tovar, because Vergara had told him about it. In 1535 Luis de Beteta identified Ortiz as one of the persons whom Juan Lopez de Calain had tried (also without success) to recruit for the apostolate at Medina de Rioseco. Despite Ortiz' extensive acquaintance with so many suspicious characters, the Inquisition seems never to have disturbed him. In October, 1538, he appeared as a witness in the trial of his friend Luis de Beteta, at which time he was still secure in his post as chaplain of San Pedro. Beteta proceso; Cazalla proceso; Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso.


      There is another Pedro Ortiz. He was a Franciscan friar attached to the monastery in Alcala, who was recommended by Juan del Castillo to his sister Petronila de Lucena both as confessor and counselor. Petronila apparently followed her brother's advice: April 4, 1532, Diego Hernandez spoke of how friar Pedro Ortiz, deceased, used to praise Petronila de Lucena. Ortiz was also posthumously denounced as a Lutheran by Diego Hernandez in June of 1533. Beteta proceso; Petronila proceso; Vergara proceso.

      OSMA, Pedro de. (I have also seen OSUNA.) Professor of theology at the University of Salamanca in the latter fifteenth century, Osma was a Biblical scholar of considerable talent, and was greatly admired as such by his celebrated student Antonio de Nebrija. He was an authority on Aristotle and also made a critical study of the Vulgate, suggesting some 600 corrections in translation. In 1478 Osma published a work on sacramental confession in which he maintained, among other things, that confession was not of divine law and that auricular confession was not necessary. His conclusions provoked so much controversy that the archbishop of Toledo, Alonso Carrillo, convoked in Alcala a committee of 52 theologians to examine Osma's book. On May 24, 1479, the committee declared nine propositions of Osma to be false, heretical, scandalous and erroneous, and Osma promptly abjured his heresies. By papal bull of August 10, 1480, Sixtus IV approved and confirmed the findings against Osma, who died the following year. He has earned the malediction of Menendez y Pelayo as the first Spanish Protestant, and the benediction of E. Christ as the Spanish Huss. Bataillon, Erasmo; Castro, Adversus omnes haereses; Christ, Spanische Glaubenshelden; Floranes, "Teologos contra Pedro de Osma"; Menendez y Pelayo, Heterodoxos.

      ORTIZ, Pedro. Doctor Pedro Ortiz, brother of Francisco Ortiz, was a theologian of considerable reputation, and a staunch defender of rigid orthodoxy. He took a leading part in the Sorbonne conferences at Paris which condemned Erasmus in December of 1527. Following his return from Paris he was appointed professor of Bible at the University of Salamanca in 1529. The following year he appeared as a witness against Juan de Vergara, accusing Vergara of defending heresies in Erasmus, and of criticizing the Paris theologians for their condemnation of the Dutch humanist three years before.

      Despite the seemingly spotless reputation of Pedro Ortiz, one brief chapter in his life indicates a definite deviation from the path of orthodoxy. His brother Francisco Ortiz testified in May, 1529, that Pedro had written him of the wondrous tales he had heard in Paris about Francisca Hernandez. When Pedro returned to Spain he went to visit Francisca to ask her to pray for him. During his visit, Francisca was picked up by order of the Toledo Inquisition and carted off to that city (early 1529). Pedro Ortiz accompanied Francisca part way on her journey to Toledo, tearfully thanking God for having let him meet Francisca Hernandez. The only reason he did not accompany Francisca an the way to Toledo was that he had to return to the classroom at the University of Salamanca. Beteta proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso.

      OSUNA, Francisco de. The Franciscan monastery (La Saceda) in Pastrana was a center of Illuminist activities in the 1520s. Besides Francisco de Osuna, friars of this monastery who were implicated with the Illuminists were Francisco Ortiz, Francisco Ximenez and his brother Pedro, one friar Angel and one friar Cristobal. Members of this group were in close and regular contact with Alcaraz, Isabel de la Cruz, Geronimo de Olivares, Diego de Barreda, Maria de Cazalla and


(of course) Francisca Hernandez. One of the most celebrated friars of this monastery was Francisco de Osuna, who made many converts to recogimiento in Pastrana. Osuna was the author of a number of well known mystical treatises, in both Spanish and Latin. The most famous of his works are his Abecedarios espirituales (Spiritual ABCs), one of which - the third - influenced Saint Theresa to adopt the mystic life. Osuna died in 1540, apparently without ever having been bothered by the Inquisition, despite his considerable missionary activity for the Illuminists in the 1520s. His influence extended in later centuries to the far reaches of Spain's empire. In 1776, a copy of his fourth Abecedario (on the Law of Love) was among the volumes in the library of the Franciscan custody of New Mexico, at the pueblo of Santo Domingo. Alcaraz proceso; Beteta proceso; Cazalla proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso; Adams and Chavez, New Mexico Missions; Nicolas Antonio; Solana, Filosofia espanola.

      PAEZ, Gonzalo. A chaplain of the duke of Infantado, the converso Gonzalo Paez was a friend of Alcaraz and sometime confessor of Maria de Cazalla. He appeared as a witness in the trials of Alcaraz, Maria de Cazalla and Bernardino de Tovar. In 1529 Paez himself was questioned by the Inquisition regarding his Illuminist propensities, and he was forbidden to leave Guadalajara during the investigation. However, the case against him was apparently dropped. In June 1533 Diego Hernandez, who had lived at the home of Paez in Guadalajara until they had a falling out, denounced Paez as a heretic. Alcaraz proceso; Bivar proceso; Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      PASCUAL, Mateo (Mosen). Mateo or Mosen Pascual was denounced by Diego Hernandez in 1532 and 1533 as a heretical follower of Tovar and a Lutheran. In 1529, when the Doctrina cristiana of Juan de Valdes was under examination by the theologians of Alcala, their meetings were held in the chambers of Pascual, who was rector of the university. In 1531 Pascual was in Rome with Juan de Valdes, apparently having accompanied the latter in his flight from Spain. After a brief stay in Rome he returned to Spain, where he was promptly seized by the Toledo Inquisition. His sympathetic attitude


toward Juan de Valdes was one of the charges laid against him. After a long trial, which finally ended by 1537, Pascual returned to Rome where he spent most, if not all of his remaining years until his death in 1553. Longhurst, Juan de Valdes.

      PASTRANA, Antonio de. Diego Hernandez in 1533 named the "abbot" friar Antonio as a heretic. This must be friar Antonio de Pastrana, custos of the Order of San Francisco in the Province of Castile. Although the Franciscans do not use the term "abbot," Diego Hernandez (who had a loose way with words) might have employed it carelessly to mean custos ("custodio").

      Friar Antonio de Pastrana is the first person we know of to use the term "alumbrado," which we have been translating here as "Illuminist." In 1512, Antonio de Pastrana imprisoned and punished a fellow Franciscan from Ocana, whom he described in a letter to Cardinal Ximenez de Cisneros as a "religioso contemplativo alumbrado con las tinieblas de Satanas," - that is, a contemplative religious illuminated by the darknesses of Satan. A few years later, this same darkness shone upon Antonio de Pastrana himself, when he was felled by the emanations of Isabel de la Cruz in Guadalajara. Together with Diego de Barreda and Ruiz de Alcaraz, he was responsible for the conversion of the Illuminists of Pastrana to the principles of dejamiento. There is no evidence, however, that he was ever processed by the Inquisition. Alcaraz proceso; Cazalla proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso; Serrano Y Sanz, "Alcaraz"; Bataillon, Erasmo.

      PEREZ, Diego. Diego Perez, from Guadalajara, lived in the home of dona Brianda de Mendoza, sister of the Duke of Infantado. He visited frequently with Isabel de la Cruz and very likely with Maria de Cazalla, since he was denounced by Diego Hernandez in 1533. His daughter Petronila (not Petronila de Lucena), who was named as a witness for Maria de Cazalla in the latter's trial, shared her father's religious enthusiasms. In 1524, Petronila and her husband, one don Benito of Madrid, brought the visionary and slightly deranged Pastrana Illuminist, Alonso Lopez de la Palomera, to the convent of La Madre de Dios in Toledo, to convert the nuns there. Beteta proceso; Bivar proceso; Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.


      This Alonso Lopez de la Palomera was the son of Old Christians from Pastrana. He was born a cripple and had all kinds of sicknesses as a child, which continued throughout his life. He also suffered from bad dreams, had a terrible guilt complex, and was cruelly concerned about purging himself of his sins, because he could feel the devil always working inside him. He did much hard praying; he would have seizures during prayer and would have to be tied down before he hurt himself or somebody else. During mass he would begin to tremble (or quake) and break out in a sweat. He was picked up by the local Illuminists, who used him as a kind of traveling showpiece to demonstrate the manifestations of abandonment to God. Poor man - the Inquisition grabbed him, put him through his performance a number of times. We don't know what finally happened to him; all that remains in the Inquisition records are fragments of his trial in 1524, which appear in the trial of Luis de Beteta. Beteta proceso.

      PIZARRO. Diego Hernandez (in June, 1533) named the two Pizarro sisters on the list of Lutherans which he presented to the Toledo Inquisition. These two sisters may have been associated with Maria de Cazalla in Guadalajara. Vergara proceso. QUINONES, Francisco de. Fleeing from the Inquisition, Juan del Castillo in Rome stayed briefly in the household of Francisco de Quinones, Cardinal of Santa Cruz and General of the Franciscan Order. It is very unlikely, however, that the cardinal was sympathetic to suspected heretics. He had a habit of helping out his countrymen in Rome, even when he did not know them personally, and he probably knew nothing of Juan del Castillo, particularly since Quinones, as general of his order, was a vigorous opponent of the Illuminist tendencies among the Franciscans.

      The cardinal did have some personal knowledge of the Illuminists. In 1521 and 1522, he had his headquarters at the Franciscan monastery in Valladolid. (He was not yet a cardinal and was known by his pre-cardinal name of Francisco de los Angeles.) In those years Francisca Hernandez used to visit his monastery and confess to the friars there, including Francisco de (los Angeles) Quinones himself. In fact, the future cardinal sometimes visited Francisca Hernandez at her


quarters in the Cazalla household in Valladolid - at least it was so alleged. Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso; Bataillon, Erasmo.

      QUIROS, Leonor de. Dona Leonor, wife of a Guadalajara notary named Cifuentes, was one of the few Old Christians among the Illuminists. Both she and her husband associated with Alcaraz, Isabel de la Cruz and Maria de Cazalla. She testified as a favorable character witness for Alcaraz in 1526. Diego Hernandez denounced her as a disciple of Maria de Cazalla in 1532 and included her on his Lutheran list of 1533. In Toledo, March 17, 1533, Maria de Cazalla presented a list of favorable character witnesses, which included the name of dona Leonor de Quiros. An inquisitor's notation alongside Leonor's name reads, "Alumbrada." However, apparently no inquisitorial action was ever taken against her. Alcaraz proceso; Bivar proceso; Cazalla proceso; Petronila proceso; Vergara proceso.

      RAMIREZ, Beatriz. A beata from Alcala, Beatriz Ramirez constitutes another link between Ignatius Loyola and the Illuminists. Both she and her friend Manuel de Miona were closely associated with Loyola during the latter's brief but troublesome stay at Alcala in 1526 and 1527. She and Miona were also denounced by Diego Hernandez as heretical disciples of Tovar a few years later. While Miona left Spain and ultimately became a Jesuit, Beatriz Ramirez remained in Alcala. In 1543, when the Society of Jesus was introduced into that city, Beatriz Ramirez was one of the group which took part in the festivities celebrating that event. Vergara proceso; Fita.

      RAMIREZ, Juan. A cleric from Guadalajara and an associate of Maria de Cazalla. According to the cryptic testimony of Diego Hernandez in June, 1533, Juan Ramirez died as a happy Lutheran ("Ie hizo morir alegre luterano sal"). Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      RAMIREZ, Maria. The maid of Francisca Hernandez, Maria Ramirez was the niece of Antonio de Medrano. Like her uncle she was a loyal supporter of Francisca Hernandez, having entered Fran-


cisca's service at almost the very moment Medrano had been forbidden to see his beloved any longer. Maria shared a cell with her mistress in Toledo, and in the many denunciations made by Francisca Hernandez, Maria served as her faithful echo.

      RAMIREZ DE TOLEDO, Juan. A humanist professor of rhetoric at the University of Alcala, Juan Ramirez de Toledo was denounced as a Lutheran by Diego Hernandez in 1533. We do not know if he was ever tried by the Inquisition, although in the trial of Maria de Cazalla there are brief and tantalizing references in 1533 to the Inquisition's imprisonment of "the mother of maestro Ramirez" and to the release of her brothers. Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso; Bataillon, Erasmo.

      RODRIGUEZ, Antonio. In 1534 Alonso Ruiz de Virues accused Vergara of denying that the sacraments give grace ex opere operato. The argument which resulted took place in the quarters of Archbishop Fonseca and, according to Virues, was broken up by Antonio Rodriguez (Doctor de la Fuente), who was archdeacon of la Fuente in the bishopric of Zamora and who was also canon of San Justo y Pastor at the University of Alcala. Bataillon, describing the role played by the archdeacon of la Fuente in defense of Erasmus at the Valladolid conference of 1527, identifies him as one Juan de la Fuente, who was associated with the Comunero revolt at Alcala in 1521. Urriza identifies the archdeacon of la Fuente as Francisco de la Fuente, who was dean of the faculty of arts at Alcala from 1526 to 1555, and who served on the committee which approved the Doctrina cristiana of Juan de Valdes in 1529.

      Our Antonio Rodriguez could be the man in question. He is clearly identified in Vergara's trial as the archdeacon of la Fuente, he is also attached to the University of Alcala, and he could be the Doctor de la Fuente who defended Erasmus at Valladolid in 1527.

      In the trial of Antonio de Medrano, there appears an excerpt from the trial of Tovar, dated Alcala, September 5, 1530. This excerpt consists of a statement by the forty year old cleric Antonio Rodriguez, in which Rodriguez testified to having denounced Francisca


Hernandez and Antonio de Medrano many years before in Salamanca. If this is the same person as Doctor Antonio Rodriguez, it suggests some early - though not necessarily sympathetic Illuminist contacts for the future archdeadon of la Fuente. Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso; Bataillon, Erasmo; Urriza.

      RODRIGUEZ, Hernan. The cleric Hernan Rodriguez, secretary of Archbishop Fonseca of Toledo, was a good friend of Juan de Vergara. In June, 1533, he was denounced as a Lutheran by Diego Hernandez. At almost the same moment, the Inquisition jailed him for helping Vergara smuggle letters to Tovar. After persistent questioning, and in the face of overwhelming evidence against him, Rodriguez, on June 30, 1533, tentatively admitted his guilt, and was probably released soon after. October 9, 1538, Hernan Rodriguez, who now held the position of chorus chaplain ("capellan de coro") in the church of Toledo, testified to the good Christian character of his colleague Luis de Beteta in the latter's trial as an Illuminist. Beteta proceso; Vergara proceso.

      RUEDA, Lope de. Husband of Maria de Cazalla and, by association, implicated with her in Illuminist activities at Guadalajara.

     Although he appeared as a witness in Tovar's trial and was denounced by Francisca Hernandez, he apparently was never processed by the Inquisition. Anyway, he could not have been too enthusiastic about the Illuminists: one of his chief complaints was that his wife Maria was so wrapped up in her religiosity that she did not have time (or inclination) to sleep with him. Alcaraz proceso; Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      RUEDA, Pedro de. Brother of Lope de Rueda (previous entry), Pedro testified in the trial of Bernardino de Tovar. He had two relatives of the same name: a son of Maria de Cazalla, who was a student at the University of Alcala, and an Illuminist cousin, a cleric from Guadalajara, who was dead by 1530. It was either our Pedro de Rueda or his Illuminist cousin whom Diego Hernandez denounced as a Lutheran in 1533. Alcaraz proceso; Bivar proceso; Cazalla proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso.


      RUIZ DE ALCARAZ, Hernando. Brother of Pedro Ruiz de Alcaraz and mildly implicated with the Illuminists around his brother and Isabel de la Cruz. His name appeared on the 1533 Lutheran list submitted by Diego Hernandez to the Toledo Inquisition. Alcaraz proceso; Bivar proceso; Vergara proceso.

      RUIZ DE ALCARAZ, Pedro. He shared, with Isabel de la Cruz, leadership of the early Illuminist movement in New Castile. He was jailed by the Inquisition of Toledo in 1524 and after a long trial was condemned in 1529 to life imprisonment. There was considerable rivalry between Alcaraz at Guadalajara and Escalona and Francisca Hernandez at Valladolid. Francisca claimed that she refused to see Alcaraz when he came to visit her at Valladolid. This was true, and in 1526 Alcaraz gave his account of his only trip to Valladolid to see Francisca Hernandez. He went there, he said, with the intention of meeting and speaking with "this Francisca Hernandez" in order to find out the truth about the scandalous stories he had been hearing about her from the friars at Escalona. He wanted to do what he could to persuade her to behave herself, for she was giving the movement a bad name. But Francisca refused to see him, and instead let some of her aides deal with him. They told Alcaraz that if God gave Francisca the word to see him she would do so, but she had not yet received such instruction. Alcaraz was appalled by the "elated" condition of her followers, and was suspicious about the whole business. It all looked to him like the Devil's work, so he left Valladolid and never returned. Alcaraz proceso.

      RUIZ DE VIRUES, Alonso. Alonso Ruiz de Virues, who appeared as a witness against Juan de Vergara, was a celebrated Benedictine and preacher to Emperor Charles V. He was also an Erasmist of considerable renown, and was to suffer a fate not unlike Vergara's. In 1535 he was jailed by the Inquisition on charges of Erasmian heresy.

      Despite the efforts of the emperor and Inquisitor General Manrique to expedite his case, the trial of Virues dragged on for three years. To the charge of Erasmism he pleaded the orthodoxy of Erasmus.

     Finally he was declared suspect of Lutheranism and found guilty in 1538.


      Charles V had to secure a papal brief annulling his sentence, and a few years later Charles appointed Virues bishop of the Canaries, which post he held until his death in 1545. Nicolas Antonio; Bataillon, Erasmo; Beltran de Heredia, "Alonso de Virues"; Longhurst, Juan de Valdes.

SANCHEZ, Alonso. Doctor Alonso Sanchez, from Zamora, was one of the first students at the University of Alcala, having been elected a fellow of the College of San Ildefonso in 1508. He was a member of the examining commission which approved the Doctrina cristiana of Juan de Valdes in 1529. Testifying in the trial of Valdes in 1532, he was careful not to admit that he had officially approved of the Doctrina cristiana. Vergara proceso; Longhurst, Juan de Valdes. SANCHEZ, Juan. Mozo de carrel of the Toledo Inquisition. Like his superior, the alcaide Juan de Ortega, he accepted bribes from the prisoners in return for disregarding security regulations within the prison. Before the inquisitors caught up with him in May, 1533, Sanchez was having the time of his life. He carried on amorously with some of the women prisoners and spent long evenings in the cells, eating, singing and dancing with the prisoners until all hours. He was also wild about Francisca Hernandez, declaiming that he would kill himself for her. Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso. SANTA MARIA, Archpriest of. Denounced by Diego Hernandez in 1532 and 1533 as a heretical disciple of Tovar and a Lutheran. Vergara proceso.

      SAN JUAN, Ines de. The Cistercian nun, Ines de San Juan, communicated with Alcaraz and Isabel de la Cruz in the years before 1520.

      In 1533 her name appeared on the list of Lutherans which Diego Hernandez revealed to the Toledo Inquisition. Vergara proceso; Serrano y Sanz, "Alcaraz."

      SANTO DOMINGO, Fernando de. A cleric from Toledo and one of the few persons whom Francisca Hernandez was able to alienate from


Tovar. According to several testimonies of Francisca and her echo, Maria Ramirez, Santo Domingo came to see Francisca in Valladolid around 1524, in company with Geronimo de Olivares, but on the advice of Tovar. He spent six months in Valladolid, during which period Francisca corrected his erroneous views on religious matters and saved his soul from the spiritual infections of Tovar. So impressed was Santo Domingo that he renounced Tovar as a creature of the devil, and when he returned to Toledo he refused to have any more to do with his former evil companions. Beteta proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso.

      SAYAVEDRA, Antonio de. The licentiate Antonio de Sayavedra of Madrid was a follower of Francisca Hernandez during his student days at Salamanca before 1520. Sayavedra testified in the trial of Tovar, very likely in regard to Tovar's activities at Salamanca. He also testified in Medrano's trial in 1529, when he described the questionable behavior of Francisca Hernandez and Medrano at Salamanca. Medrano sought to disqualify Sayavedra as a hostile witness motivated by jealousy over Francisca's affection for Medrano. Sayavedra was never disturbed by the Inquisition; all indications are that his days of youthful indiscretion ended in Salamanca (although he did know Alcaraz at Escalona in 1523) and that by 1529 he was considered to be a thoroughly respectable (and orthodox) citizen. Alcaraz proceso; Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso.

      TAPIA, Juan de. In 1532 Diego Hernandez denounced Juan de Tapia as a heretical follower of Tovar; the following year Hernandez denounced him as a Lutheran. Juan de Vergara, in one of his secret letters to Tovar, intercepted by the Toledo inquisitors on April 11, 1533, revealed that Tapia had been released by the Inquisition some days earlier, after being required to doff his ecclesiastical dress and to wear black. Tapia obtained his freedom, Vergara said, thanks to the intervention on his behalf of some influential friends. Vergara proceso.


      TORRES, Francisco. The bachiller Francisco Torres, a countryman (from La Mancha) of Diego Hernandez, was a musician in the service of the Duke of Infantado in Guadalajara. In March, 1532,;;;.Diego Hernandez identified him as a suspicious character ("buen hijo") associated with Maria de Cazalla; two months later Hernandez named him as a heretical disciple of Bernardino de Tovar. Bivar proceso; Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      TORRES, Miguel de. Doctor Miguel de Torres of the University of Alcala was an accomplished Latinist and Hellenist, and also an intimate of Tovar and Manuel de Miona. In 1532 Diego Hernandez denounced Torres as a disciple of Tovar, and also revealed that Torres had left Spain for Paris. It is very possible that Torres left Spain with his friend Manuel de Miona and that, like Miona, he attached himself to Ignatius Loyola in Paris, although Torres was back at Alcala by 1535. Also like Miona, Torres later became a Jesuit and served as provincial of his order in Andalusia. Vergara proceso; Bataillon, Erasmo; Loyola, Autobiografia; Rujula; Urriza.

      TOVAR, Bernardino de. Tovar was summoned before the Toledo Inquisition in 1529, but he was not jailed until September of the following year. The case against him was based largely on the testimonies of Francisca Hernandez and Maria Ramirez, with a strong assist from Diego Hernandez, who named Tovar as the head of a vast Lutheran conspiracy in Spain. Tovar's trial dragged on at least until 1535. On April 22, 1535, the mozo de carcel of the Toledo Inquisition reported to his superiors that on the day of the recent auto de fe, Vergara asked him if Tovar had appeared at the auto, and what sentence he had received. The mozo replied (to Vergara) that whether he knew or not, he would not tell Vergara. It may be that Tovar appeared at an auto de fe held a short time before April 22, 1535. This could have been the auto at which his friend Juan del Castillo was burned at the stake. Vergara proceso.

      VALDES, Alfonso de. Secretary to Charles V, brother of Juan de Valdes, and one of the most influential Erasmists of Spain. He was the author of the two well known Erasmian dialogues which stirred


up considerable controversy in Spain over his orthodoxy. He died of the plague in Vienna in 1532, which probably saved him from the Inquisition. Some of his hitherto unedited letters were published in 1955 by Giuseppe Bagnatori; Caballero, Alonso y Juan de Valdes; Longhurst, Alfonso de Valdes; Bagnatori, "Cartas ineditas."

      VALDES, Juan de. Brother of Alfonso de Valdes and author of the Doctrina cristiana, which raised grave doubts in conservative Church circles about Valdes' orthodoxy. In 1529, to avoid inquisitorial action against him, Valdes fled Spain for Italy. There he remained for the rest of his life, writing constantly and gathering about him a devoted circle of aristocratic followers who were attracted to the quasi-mystical piety of Valdes. More important than my own small study of Valdes are the revised biography (1963) by Edmondo Cione and the continuing studies of Valdes by my colleague Domingo Ricart who is a kind of reincarnation of the admirable Valdes himself.

      VALENZUELA. A companion and presumably a fellow Franciscan of Gil Lopez de Bejar. According to Maria Ramirez, he and friar Gil were present in Valladolid when Juan de Vergara, in a conversation with Francisca Hernandez, denied the value of oral prayer. Valenzuela might be a member of the noble family of Valenzuelas of Cuenca, the home town of the Valdes brothers and Cristobal de Gumiel. Vergara proceso; Martir Rizo, Historia de Cuenca.

      VALLE, Ana del. Ana del Valle, "la flamenca," presumably came from Flanders in the train of Charles V and stayed in Spain to marry a man from Burgos. By 1525 her religious views had excited the admiration of Diego del Castillo, the Illuminist from Burgos, who praised her mightily to Francisca Hernandez in Valladolid. Others attracted to her were Diego Lopez Husillo, Pero Hernandez, and possibly Maria de Cazalla. Ana del Valle was denounced to the Inquisition of Toledo by both Francisca Hernandez and Diego Hernandez, but there is no evidence that she was ever put on trial. Beteta proceso; Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.


      VALVERDE. In June 1533 Diego Hernandez named the Valverde girls on his list of heretics. The year before, Hernandez testified that Maria de Cazalla had once scolded these same Valverde girls and called them "papamisas" because they were too devoted to external ceremonies in church. Presumably the Valverdes moved among the Guadalajara Illuminists, where Diego Hernandez came to know them. There was a Valverde family in Guadalajara, which was kin to Ruiz de Alcaraz. Alcaraz proceso; Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso.

      VARGAS, Francisco de. Doctor Francisco de Vargas, professor of theology at the University of Alcala, played a minor role on the committee of Alcala theologians which in 1529 approved the Doctrina cristiana of Juan de Valdes. After his death in about 1550, Vargas gained a dubious historical fame by being praised by one of his refugee Lutheran countrymen as a leading Spanish Protestant in the first half of the sixteenth century. Vergara proceso; Bataillon, Erasmo; Gonzalez de Montes, Artes; Longhurst, Juan de Valdes.

      VARGAS, Garcia de. An Illuminist of Guadalajara, as was his wife, Vargas was denounced by his former bosom friend Diego Hernandez in 1532 and 1533. Early in 1532 he was jailed by the Toledo Inquisition. A brief extract of his trial, dated April 30, 1532, appears in the Cazalla proceso. It consists of his denunciation of Maria de Cazalla, with whom Vargas had quarreled because Maria did not share his opinion of the heroic qualities of Diego Hernandez. The trial of Vargas was still going on in August of 1534; after that date we lose sight of him. Bivar proceso; Cazalla proceso; Petronila proceso; Vergara proceso.

      VAZQUEZ, Dionisio. Dionisio Vazquez was an Augustinian friar, an eloquent orator and theologian, preacher at the papal court of Leo X and at the courts of Ferdinand of Spain and Emperor Charles V. He was also an enthusiastic Erasmist and defended the Dutch humanist at the Valladolid conference of 1527. In 1532 he became the first professor of Bible at the University of Alcala. He was denounced by Diego Hernandez as a disciple of Tovar in 1532 and as a disciple of Erasmus in 1533. In 1538 he made a brief and unimportant appear-


ance at the trial of his friend Luis de Beteta. He died the following year, without ever having been in difficulty with the Inquisition. Beteta proceso; Vergara proceso; Nicola.,> Antonio; Bataillon, Erasmo.

      VAZQUEZ, Hernan. Brother of Dionisio Vazquez, Hernan Vazquez was a sometime professor of theology at the University of Alcala. In 1529 he was the most vigorous defender of Juan de Valdes and a staunch supporter of the orthodoxy of the Doctrina cristiana when that work was under examination at Alcala. Diego Hernandez twice denounced Vazquez (in 1532 and 1533) as a heretical follower of Tovar. Vergara proceso; Longhurst, Juan de Valdes.

      VELASCO, Bernardino de. After Francisca Hernandez left the Valladolid home of Leonor de Bivero and Pedro de Cazalla in 1527, she went to live at Castrillo Tejeriego (a few miles from Valladolid) with Catalina de Guevara and her husband, Bernardino de Velasco. When Francisca was seized by the Toledo inquisitors, her expenses in jail were paid by don Bernardino. Medrano proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso.

      VELASCO, Catalina de. See GUEVARA, Catalina de.

      VELAZQUEZ, Luisa. Denounced by Diego Hernandez in 1532 as a disciple of Tovar. Luisa Velazquez, her maid, and her mother were among the disciples of Ignatius Loyola at Alcala in 1526 and 1527. Vergara proceso; Fita.


      VERGARA, Francisco de. Brother of Juan de Vergara, and twice denounced by Diego Hernandez to the Toledo Inquisition. Francisco de Vergara was one of the leading Hellenists of his age. He was professor of Greek at the University of Alcala; he wrote a number of works in that language, and also corresponded with Erasmus in Greek. Like his friend and student Juan de Valdes, Francisco de Vergara was one of the major links between the Erasmists at the imperial court and the University of Alcala. Although he seems not to have been tried by the Inquisition, he was unquestionably in bad odor with that tribunal; when Maria de Cazalla asked that Francisco and his brother Juan be called as favorable character witnesses for her, Inquisitor Juan Yanes refused to accept their testimony under any circumstances. Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso; Nicolas Antonio; Longhurst, Juan de Valdes.

      VERGARA, Isabel de. Sister of Juan de Vergara and Bernardino de Tovar. She lived at Alcala with Tovar and shared his interests in Illuminist activities. She was denounced by both Francisca Hernandez and Diego Hernandez in the 1530s. Isabel de Vergara was more an Erasmist than an Illuminist. She was a very well educated young lady and a Latinist of sufficient talent to translate one of Erasmus' works into Spanish. An interesting contrast between the intellectual Erasmist and the intuitive Illuminist appears in the incompatibility between Isabel de Vergara and Petronila de Lucena. The two ladies simply could not get along together; Petronila used to mock Isabel for being an Erasmist, insisting that she (Petronila) knew more and felt more without learning than Isabel ever could with all her education. (This must be about the most ancient anti-intellectual declamation in the history of mankind.) Cazalla proceso; Petronila proceso; Vergara proceso; Serrano y Sanz, Apuntes.

      VERGARA, Juan de. Despite his humiliation by the Inquisition, Juan de Vergara lived on to a useful and active life. In 1548 he took a leading part in opposition to the pure-blood law ("estatuto de limpieza"), which denied the right to hold public office to anyone with Jewish or Moorish blood, and which was finally approved by Philip II in 1566. Vergara also found time to compose a treatise


entitled Tratado de las ocho cuestiones del templo, praised by Menendez y Pelayo as a work which makes Vergara the "father of critical history in Spain." The book was printed in Toledo in 1552 and was reprinted in Madrid in 1781. Vergara had also collected materials for a biography of his early patron, Cardinal Francisco Ximenez de Cisneros. However, he died in 1557 without completing the work and it remained for his friend Alvar Gomez de Castro to complete it in 1569. Allen, Epistolae Erasmi; Menendez y Pelayo, Heterodoxos.

      VILLAFANA, Gaspar de. Gaspar de Villafana, cleric from Talavera, was a friend and disciple of Bernardino de Tovar. In 1525 Tovar sent him to Valladolid to confer with Francisca Hernandez preparatory to joining the apostolate at Medina de Rioseco. Very soon after his return to Alcala, and probably in early 1526, Villafana was seized by the Toledo Inquisition. In December of that year, Ruiz de Alcaraz complained of the "diabolical deceptions and heresies" which Villafana was expounding in jail: "he denies that God is in the holy sacrament"; he describes the holy church as "the synagogue of Satan," and insists that anyone who does not agree with him is not a Christian.

      By October, 1529, Villafana had escaped jail, and the inquisitors were apparently unable to find him. In the course of the next few years Francisca Hernandez denounced him as one who did not give up his errors despite all her best efforts (meaning that he preferred Tovar to Francisca), and Diego Hernandez named him as a heretical satellite of Tovar and a Lutheran. We do not know what finally happened to him. However, according to Cristobal de Gumiel, Vergara told Gumiel that he (Vergara) was wrongfully suspected of having had something to do with the fact that an Inquisition prisoner named "Juan or Pedro de Villafana" had left Spain. Internal evidence dates this conversation as prior to April, 1533, and Gumiel's uncertainty about the first name, plus the known facts of Villafana's connection with Vergara's brother Tovar, lead us to conclude that Gaspar de Villafana had escaped recapture by fleeing from Spain. Alcaraz proceso; Beteta proceso; Cazalla proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso.


      VILLAREAL, Diego de. The brother of Maria (next entry), Diego was a Franciscan friar and native of Seville. When he, like Tovar, was a student in Salamanca, he fell under the spell of Francisca Hernandez. When the latter moved from Salamanca to Valladolid around 1520, Villareal, Tovar, and Antonio de Medrano made up her convoy, giving up their association with Francisca only after insistent orders from the Valladolid Inquisition. In 1524, Villareal acted as defense attorney for Medrano when the latter was on trial by the Inquisition at Salamanca. In the years which followed, Villareal and Tovar broke with Francisca Hernandez and Medrano. In 1530 Villareal testified several times against them both, while Medrano denounced Villareal as an Illuminist who refused to give up his errors despite the urgings of Francisca Hernandez. Villareal himself was tried by the Toledo Inquisition, but his case was apparently not serious. Although he was forbidden to leave town during his trial, he was never jailed, and his trial was apparently over by the middle of 1533.

      In October, 1530, Medrano made a curious statement about Villareal to the Toledo Inquisition. Villareal, he said, was the son of a "tornadizo," as a result of which they refused to accept him as a Franciscan friar in Salamanca. Yet we know that Villareal did become a Franciscan. As for the "tornadizo" ("turncoat") reference, although the term can mean any kind of renegade Christian, it apparently was used by Medrano to mean a Christian who had relapsed into Judaism. The same word was employed by the Toledo Inquisition to describe one Cristobal de Atienzo who, with his wife, was one of the followers of Alcaraz and Isabel de la Cruz. In the 1530s this Cristobal de Atienzo was on trial at Toledo for Jewish religious and dietary practices and also for being an Illuminist - not an unusual combination. We do not know the ultimate fate of Atienzo, although we do know that he shared a cell with Diego Hernandez, which surely was punishment enough. Bivar proceso; Cazalla proceso; Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso.


      VILLAREAL, Maria de. Sister of Diego de Villareal and maid of Francisca Hernandez. In 1530 she testified in Toledo to the effect that the relations between Francisca Hernandez and Antonio de Medrano were unsavory. Medrano proceso; Vergara proceso.

      VILLENA, Marques de. See LOPEZ PACHECO, Diego.

      VIRUES, Alonso de. See RUIZ DE VIRUES, Alonso.

      VITORIA, Pedro de. In 1533 Diego Hernandez included on his list of Lutherans the name of friar Pedro de Vitoria, "deceased." This is probably not the Franciscan Pedro de Vitoria who publicly denounced the Doctrina cristiana of Juan de Valdes, nor the Dominican Pedro de Vitoria who opposed Erasmus at Valladolid in 1527. It must be the friar Pedro de Vitoria whose name appears on a list of persons with whom Maria de Cazalla used to communicate in Guadalajara. Cazalla proceso; Vergara proceso; Bataillon, Erasmo.

      XIMENEZ, Francisco. Brother of Geronimo de Olivares, Francisco Ximimez was one of the leaders of the Illuminist group at Pastrana in the early 1520s. He and his wife, Elvira Gonzalez, were intimate acquaintances of Alcaraz, Isabel de la Cruz and Maria de Cazalla.

      Their home in Pastrana was often the scene of Illuminist meetings, as well as an entertainment shrine and podium for visiting celebrities from Guadalajara, Escalona and Cifuentes. Originally a proponent of recogimiento, Ximenez, after a visit with Diego de Barreda and Antonio de Pastrana in Cifuentes, returned to Pastrana as a convert to the more radical dejamiento view espoused by Barreda and Isabel de la Cruz. Like many converts, Ximenez became a zealous missionary for the practice of dejamiento in Pastrana. His death, which apparently occurred around 1525, very likely spared him the rigors of inquisitorial investigation. Not only were Francisco Ximenez and his brother Geronimo de Olivares actively associated with the Illuminist movement, but their numerous relatives of both sexes shared the same enthusiasm for the new doctrines, and operated in Guadalajara, Pastrana, Escalona and Cifuentes in close concert with such figures as Alcaraz, Isabel de la.


Cruz, Rodrigo de Bivar, Gaspar de Bedoya, Maria de Cazalla and Francisco Ortiz. There is another Francisco Ximenez - son of the above - who testified in the trial of his old friend Luis de Beteta in 1538. This Francisco Ximimez, who identified himself as a converso, and who circulated among the Illuminists in Toledo in the 1520s, was a chaplain at the College of Santa Catalina in Toledo, and very likely knew, Juan del Castillo when the latter was teaching Greek there in 1525. Alcaraz proceso; Beteta proceso; Bivar proceso; Cazalla proceso; Ortiz proceso; Vergara proceso.

      ZUNIGA, Francisca de. See BAEZA, Antonio de.