Toledo, August 11, 1533
Doctor (Diego de) Albornoz preached in 1525 or 1526 in Santiuste (1) before the archbishop(of Toledo, Alonso Fonseca) and severely reprimanded the doctors because they did not preach, describing them in the words of Isaiah (56:10) as dumb dogs, not able to bark. It grieved him to think, (he said), that for lack of doctrine the herd was perishing and that because of their disregard, Satan was carrying off many sheep and why did not they call out (to save the flock'? ) When the sermon was over, Doctor Vergara, greatly offended, took Doctor Albornoz aside and in the presence of several letrados, rebuked him severely for what he had said. What responsibility did one have toward others? Vergara asked. One should perform the duties of his office and not tend to the business of others. Everyone knew what he was supposed to do, and other such words (Vergara spoke).
1. The Church of San Justo y Pastor at Alcala.
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which makes you speak and preach such doctrine; it seems to me that whereas the mouths of the good are clean, the mouths of the wicked are foul and unclean. " (2) I (Diego Hernandez) do not consider these to be Christian words, but the most corrupt words, which do not come from a clean spirit, but from one bespattered in blood. Not to believe in the Holy Spirit is not far from being a Greek. (3) I did not hear this (conversation of Vergara's) myself. I heard (about) it from maestro (Pedro) Alejandro, who is a doctor (of theology at Alcala) and who, I believe, was present.... In the college of theologians, where he and I were colegiales, he told me and the other maestros (about this).
Juan de Vitoria
Medina del Campo, September 17, 1533
About four or five years ago this witness was in Las Navas with don Pedro de Avila, lord of that place. This witness spoke harshly of Erasmus, and don Pedro, speaking well of Erasmus, showed this witness a book ... in which book he showed this witness a letter written by Erasmus to Doctor Vergara, secretary of the very reverend lord archbishop of Toledo, the salutation of which read, "Juan de Vergara, excellent or supreme theologian. " This witness read the said letter but he does not recall the contents of it nor does he recall if it was signed with Erasmus' name. However, don Pedro told him that the letter was from Erasmus, and this witness believes don Pedro will have this letter in the said book.
2. Psalms, 50:19; 109:2. Proverbs, 10:31-32.
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Inquisitor Alonso Mejia(4)
Toledo, September 23, 1533
He said that about two years ago, when this witness was in the choir of the holy church of this city, in his chair as a canon, Francisco de Silva, a canon of the said holy church, who occupied a chair three or four chairs below this witness, came alongside this witness' chair and asked how the Tovar affair was getting on. This witness told him how the case was going. Then Francisco de Silva said, "Well, Tovar is a saint in comparison with his brother Doctor Vergara. " This witness asked how he knew this, and Francisco de Silva replied that he considered Vergara to be a great heretic because he never saw Vergara hear mass in all the time he was in the house of his master the archbishop of Toledo, even though .Vergara's apartment faced on the door of the room where mass was said for the archbishop. Nor did Francisco de Silva ever see Vergara pray the canonical hours all during this time.... However, after they seized Vergara's brother Tovar, from that time on he saw Vergara hear mass and pray in his breviary.
Francisco de Silva
Toledo, September 25, 1533
He said that about six or seven years ago, when the archbishop of Toledo was in Valladolid with the court ... the archbishop had his quarters in an apartment whose bedroom gave out on a room where
4. Here we have the unusual (and rank) phenomenon of one of the trial judges appearing as a witness against the defendant, and repeating unsubstantiated gossip. See the testimony of Francisco de Silva, which follows this.
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mass was said; and opposite where the altar was placed was the door, in a straight line with the chamber where Doctor Vergara had his quarters.... This witness often saw that when mass was being said in the said room, the hanging before the door of Doctor Vergara's room was not raised ... (so that) Vergara could not hear the masses that were being said. And this witness saw this many times, knowing that Doctor Vergara was in the said room at the time mass was being said, and he never saw the hanging raised so that Vergara could hear mass, notwithstanding the fact that sometimes this witness saw Vergara come out to the said room and hear mass in it and that this witness also saw Vergara hear mass in other places where the archbishop went to mass.
Silva's story did not quite fit all the details given in the testimony of trial judge and Inquisitor Mejia. So Inquisitor Vaguer then asked Silva if the latter had said he had never seen Vergara hear mass or pray until after the seizure of Tovar and that therefore he considered Tovar to be a saint in comparison with Vergara. Silva replied that although he recalled telling one of the inquisitors in the choir at Toledo about Vergara's failure to hear mass on certain occasions, he never made any remark to the effect that Vergara never said mass until after Tovar's imprisonment, nor did he ever say he considered Tovar to be a saint in comparison with Vergara. In fact, said Silva, in the five years he had known Vergara, he had never seen Vergara commit any bad example other than the one mentioned above.
Bernardino de Tovar
When the Toledo inquisitors questioned Tovar on December 10, 1529, (5) before Tovar's imprisonment, Tovar stated that he knew the library of Doctor Vergara included a book by Oecolampadius. Now, with Vergara regularly appealing to the Council against the
5. Not on December 2, as appears in Marcel Bataillon, Erasmo y Espana, Mexico, 1950, vol. ii, p. 14, n. 3.
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delays in his case, and feeling the pressure of outside influences in behalf of Vergara, the inquisitors questioned Tovar more extensively on the matter of Lutheran books in Vergara's library.
Toledo, October 9, 1533
This witness said he did not have Oecolampadius' book here in Toledo but in Alcala where this witness had placed it among the books of his brother Doctor Vergara, because as Doctor Vergara was absent from Alcala this witness had charge of his books. There were (regularly) brought to this witness from Flanders certain bound books of holy doctors, and along with them came the said Oecolampadius in a separate binding, and so it remained there until this witness sent it to the Council of the Inquisition.
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Vergara wrote him from Madrid about three of four years ago about the books and told him how in Madrid they had ordered or published an edict against the possession of suspicious books and that they should be brought before the Inquisition. Therefore, Doctor Vergara wrote to tell this witness not to wait for the publication of the said edict in Alcala but to go through the books in Vergara's house, as well as those which had been sent to this witness from Flanders.
Gil Lopez de Bejar
In their depositions against Vergara, Francisca Hernandez and Maria Ramirez had named as a witness to Vergara's heresies the Franciscan friar, Gil Lopez de Bejar, preacher to Emperor Charles V.
Friar Gil, who was travelling with the imperial court, was located for an interview in Brussels on January 5, 1532. The report of his statements was not received in Toledo, however, until October of the following year, at which time it was included in Vergara's trial. (6)
6. On second thought, this does not make much sense. Surely it did not take almost two years for the testimony of Bejar to reach Spain from Flanders. Most likely it arrived a few months after it was taken, and was then filed away for use on some appropriate occasion - this
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Toledo, October 27, 1533
Friar Gil was asked about certain articles of confession made in Toledo by Francisca Hernandez and her maid Maria Ramirez ... the substance of which is that the said Francisca Hernandez and her maid Maria Ramirez said that Doctor Vergara maintained that indulgences granted by our most holy father were a joke and that oral prayer broke one's head, that mental prayer was sufficient, and that he greatly praised Luther and his opinions. These two women say that the said Friar Gil was present when Doctor Vergara made these remarks.
one. As a matter of fact, the number of marginal notations ("Taken from the trial of so-and-so") which appear in Vergara's trial tell us that the inquisitors of Toledo were combing their files thoroughly for every scrap of incriminating material against Vergara.
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Toledo, October 30, 1533
Asked if he remembers where he and the said maestro (Juan del) Castillo were at the time he heard Castillo say that Vergara was danado and a fino luterano endiosado and how many times and how long ago he heard Castillo say it, he replied that in 1529 he and maestro Castillo were at La Garena, the family estate of Castillo's mother, near Alcala, this witness having come from Guadalajara to see Castillo at La Garena. This was at the time that maestro Castillo had left this kingdom to embark with our lord the emperor when he was going to his coronation (which took place in October, 1520).
Diego de Albornoz
Diego Hernandez, testifying in Toledo on August 11, 1533, had accused Vergara of berating Doctor Albornoz for an offensive sermon. When Albornoz defended himself on the ground that the
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Holy Spirit had spoken through him, Vergara (according to Hernandez) replied with a vigorous denial of the Holy Spirit. The inquisitors accordingly sent an agent to Alcala to secure a statement from Albornoz on this point. It must have disappointed them.
Alcala, December 14, 1533
He was asked if he remembered that preaching one day in 1525 or 1526 in Alcala in the church of San Juste before his lordship the archbishop of Toledo, he rebuked the doctors because they did not preach ... and lamented that for lack of doctrine the herd was perishing and through the doctors' disregard of duty Satan was carrying off many sheep.
Albornoz then named four of his colleagues from Alcala as having been present on the occasion described. Under questioning from December 15 to 19 (94v-95v), three of them testified that they never heard Vergara speak the words attributed to him by Diego Hernandez. The fourth witness, Alonso Sanchez, stated that he did hear Vergara say something to the effect that he did not believe in the Holy Spirit.
Cristobal de Gumiel
On December 15, 1533, Vergara finally revealed, after persistent questioning, that the licentiate Cristobal de Gumiel had been obtaining secret information for Vergara on the proceedings in Tovar's trial (233r-v). Gumiel was jailed by the inquisitors, and on December 20,
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1533, he confessed that he had worked through Pedro de Hermosilla, notary of the Toledo tribunal, to procure the secret information which Vergara wanted regarding the trial of Tovar (235r-v). On January 22 of the following year (7) Gumiel revealed more details of these events.
Toledo, January 22, 1534
After the imprisonment of Tovar) Doctor Vergara wrote to licentiate Gumiel from Madrid, where the court was and where Doctor Vergara was residing. He asked that Gumiel try, with the said bachiller (Hermosilla) to provide that all go well with Tovar. So licentiate Gumiel spoke to bachiller Hermosilla, urging him to try to do what he could in the Tovar matter, since Doctor Vergara would be able to see that (Hermosilla) got some benefice (as a reward).... The said bachiller Hermosilla replied to the said licentiate Gumiel that he would do it.... Later, licentiate Gumiel found out that the publication (of witnesses against Tovar) had been given to bachiller Tovar.
7. That is, 1534. The trial records give the date as January 22, 1533, an obvious clerical error.
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silla arrived at Gumiel's house (in Toledo I and the two of them went to the cloister where Doctor Vergara was staying.... Hermosilla and Vergara remained alone together; licentiate Gumiel did not know and did not want to know what transpired.
8. That is, Mateo.
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the service of the king (Emperor Charles V), since there was no arrangement in Castile with the archbishop of Toledo (to take care of Valdes). The letter was so general that one could not get the impression from it that (Vergara was advising Valdes) either to leave (the country) or stay in Castile, but that (Vergara was simply telling Valdes) to do as he pleased.
Toledo, March 2, 1534
As soon as Tovar was taken prisoner, licentiate Gumiel came to Madrid ... and told this witness how he (Gumiel) had learned that the cause of Tovar's imprisonment was principally Francisca Hernandez, who had accused Tovar of holding all those propositions listed on the paper which licentiate Mejia sent to the archbishop (of Toledo) ... and that likewise the said Francisca Hernandez had accused this witness (Vergara) of three or four things.... Licentiate Gumiel told this witness that he had learned all this from bachiller Hermosilla, who was a very good friend of his and that it had been arranged for Hermosilla to keep him advised of all other matters appropriate to the case.... Then licentiate Gumiel told this witness that Hermosilla was poor and it would be necessary to satisfy him and do something for him. This witness replied that he would see to it that everything possible was done for him (Hermosilla). Licentiate Gumiel replied, giving more details, and giving (Vergara) to understand that it was money Hermosilla needed. This witness was quite upset at what seemed to him like a dirty business, but out of necessity he decided to reply to licentiate Gumiel that he was willing to help with some money, and on ... several occasions this witness gave Gumiel as much as forty ducats.... He also offered to give Hermosilla fifteen thousand maravedis yearly... which he gave through licentiate Gumiel.
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contained ten or twelve names of witnesses.... Also, he said that licentiate Gumiel, on information from bachiller Hermosilla, told this witness several times how Friar Bernardino (de Flores), priest of Pinto, had deposed against this witness, and that Doctor (Pedro) Ortiz was called to the house of Inquisitor Mejia and questioned, and that (Ortiz) had said nothing of importance.