The works listed here are recommended for students who wish to pursue further study of the topics discussed in this book. An attempt has been made to provide full bibliographical data, but a few of the volumes listed do not contain all the information desired. Occasionally brief comments are given for the guidance of prospective readers. Some of the books listed contain useful bibliographies.


General surveys of the Renaissance and Reformation may be found in the following works:

The New Cambridge Modern History, Volumes I-III, Cambridge, 1957-1968.
Volume I, The Renaissance, 1493-1520, edited by G.R. Potter;
Volume II, The Reformation, 1520-59, edited by G. R. Elton;
Volume III, The Counter-Reformation and Price Revolution, 1559-1610, edited by R. B. Wernham.

The following volumes in the series, History of Europe, edited by J. H. Plumb (published in England as the Fontana History of Europe):
Hale, J. R. Renaissance Europe, 1480-1520. London, 1971.
Elton, G. R. Reformation Europe, 1517-1559. London, 1963.
Elliott, J. H. Europe Divided, 1559-1598. London, 1968.

The following volumes in the series Peuples et Civilisations: Hauser, Henri, and Augustin Renaudet. Les debuts de l'age moderne. 4th ed. Paris, 1956.
Hauser, Henri. La prepondrance espagnole, 1559-1660. 2d ed. Paris, 1940.

The following volumes in the series, The Rise of Modern Europe, edited by William L. Langer:
Gilmore, Myron P. The World of Humanism, 1453-1517. New York, 1952.
O'Connell, Marvin R. The Counter Reformation, 1559-1610. New York and London, 1974.

The volume on the Protestant Reformation in this series, by Lewis Spitz, is in preparation.


Barraclough, G. The Origins of Modern Germany. Oxford, 1946. Despite its title, includes much information on the Middle Ages.
Bautier, Robert-Henri. The Economic Development of Medieval Europe. London, 1971.
Bloch, Marc. Feudal Society. Chicago, 1961. Original French edition, 1940. A superb work by one of the most distinguished French medievalists.
Dante. Divine Comedy. There are a number of English translations in prose and verse. The edition published by Penguin Books in three volumes in paperback, translated and edited by Dorothy L. Sayers and Barbara Reynolds (Harmondsworth, Middlesex and Baltimore, 1949- 62), may be recommended.
The Portable Dante, edited by Paolo Milano (New York, 1947), has a larger selection of Dante's works, but is less fully annotated.
Ganshof, F. L. Feudalism. London, 1952.
Gilson, Etienne. La Philosophie au Moyen Age. Paris, 1930.
Haskins, Charles Homer. The Rise of Universities. New York, 1923.
Painter, Sidney. Mediaeval Society. Ithaca, 1951.
. The Rise of the Feudal Monarchies. Ithaca, 1951.
Pirenne, Henri. Medieval Cities. Princeton, 1925.
. Mohammed and Charlemagne. New York, 1939.
Reynolds, Robert L. Europe Emerges. Madison, 1961.
Stephenson, Carl. Mediaeval Feudalism. Ithaca, 1942.
Taylor, Henry Osborn. The Mediaeval Mind. 4th ed. 2 vols. New York, 1925.
Tellenbach, Gerd. Church, State, and Christian Society at the Time of the Investiture Contest. Oxford, 1940.


Calmette, Joseph. The Golden Age of Burgundy. London, 1962. First published in French in 1949.
Cheyney, E. P. The Dawn of a New Era, 1250-1453. New York and London, 1936.
Clarke, M. V. The Medieval City State. London, 1926.
Huizinga, Johan. The Waning of the Middle Ages. London, 1924. Originally published in Dutch in 1919. A brilliant work, essential reading for all students of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance.
Lewis, D. B. Wyndham. Franois Villon. New York, 1928.
Marsilius of Padua. The Defender of Peace. Edited by Alan Gewirth. New York, 1956.
McFarlane, K. B. John Wycliffe and the Beginnings of English Nonconformity. London, 1952.
Perroy, Edouard. The Hundred Years War. London and New York, 1951.
Spinka, Matthew. John Hus, A Biography. Princeton, 1968.
Stadelmann, Rudolf. Vom Geist des ausgehenden Mittelalters. Halle/Saale, 1929.


The list of books for this chapter includes some general works on the Italian Renaissance.

Ady, Cecilia M. Lorenzo dei Medici and Renaissance Italy. London, 1955.
. A History of Milan under the Sforza. New York and London, 1907.
Brucker, Gene A. Florentine Politics and Society, 1343-1378. Princeton, 1962.
. Renaissance Florence. New York and London, 1969.
, ed. The Society of Renaissance Florence. New York, 1971. Excellent selection of documents.
, ed. Two Memoirs of Renaissance Florence. New York, 1967.
Chambers, D. S. The Imperial Age of Venice, 1380-1580. London, 1970.
Gundersheimer, Werner L. Ferrara: The Style of a Renaissance Despotism. Princeton, 1973.
Hale, J. R., J. R. L. Highfield, and B. Smalley, eds. Europe in the Late Middle Ages. London and Evanston, 1965. Contains a number of articles on Italian Renaissance subjects.
Hay, Denys. The Italian Renaissance in its Historical Background. Cambridge, 1961.
Hyde, J. K. Society and Politics in Medieval Italy. London, 1973. Covers the period 1000-1350.
Jacob, E. F., ed. Italian Renaissance Studies. London, 1960. Contains articles by leading scholars.
Lane, Frederic C. Venice: A Maritime Republic. Baltimore, 1973.
Laven, Peter. Renaissance Italy, 1464-1534. London, 1965.
Lopez, Robert S. The Three Ages of the Italian Renaissance. Charlottesville, N.C., 1970. A brief book that combines learning with grace.
Plumb, J. H., ed. The Horizon Book of the Renaissance. New York, 1961. Contains a general survey by Plumb and essays by a number of other scholars. Glorious illustrations. Has been reprinted in paperback, without the illustrations, in two volumes: The Italian Renaissanceand Renaissance Profiles. Pullan, Brian. A History of Early Renaissance Italy. London, 1973.
Rubinstein, Nicolai, ed. Florentine Studies: Politics and Society in Renaissance Florence. London and Evanston, 1968. Articles by leading authorities.
Schevill, Ferdinand. History of Florence. New York, 1936.
. The Medici. New York, 1949.
Valeri, Nino. L'Italia nell'età dei principati, dal 1343 al 1516. Milan, 1949.
Waley, Daniel. The Italian City-Republics. New York, 1969.


Many of the works of Machiavelli are readily available in English translation, and this has become more true of Guicciardini in recent years.

This list will include some useful secondary works.

Gilbert, Allan H. Machiavelli's Prince and its Forerunners. Durham, N.C., 1938.
Gilbert, Felix. Machiavelli and Guicciardini: Politics and History in Sixteenth-Century Florence. Princeton, 1965.
Hale, J. R. Machiavelli and Renaissance Italy. London, 1961.
Renaudet, Augustin. Machiavel. Paris, 1942.
Ridolfi, Roberto. The Life of Francesco Guicciardini. London, 1967. Originally published in Italian in 1960.
. The Life of Niccol Machiavelli. Chicago, 1963.
Originally published in Italian in 1954. . The Life of Girolamo Savonarola. New York, 1959.
Originally published in Italian in 1952. Weinstein, Donald. Savonarola and Florence: Prophecy and Patriotism in the Renaissance. Princeton, 1970.
Whitfield, J. H. Machiavelli. Oxford, 1947.


Some works on Petrarch will be listed in this chapter.

Baron, Hans. The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance. 2 vols. Princeton, 1955. Revised one-volume edition, available in paperback, (Princeton, 1966). Serious students will need to consult both editions, since each has material lacking in the other.
. Humanistic and Political Literature in Florence and Venice At the Beginning of the Quattrocento. Cambridge, Mass., 1955. Baron's writings are indispensable for all students of the Renaissance. The two works listed here, which are companion volumes, are among the most significant.
Bolgar, R. R. The Classical Heritage and Its Beneficiaries. Cambridge, 1954.
Cassirer, Ernst, P. O. Kristeller, and J. H. Randall, Jr., eds. The Renaissance Philosophy of Man. Chicago, 1948.
Dresden, Sem. Humanism in the Renaissance. London, 1968.
Garin, Eugenio. Italian Humanism. Oxford, 1965. First published in German in 1947.
Gray, Hanna H. "Renaissance Humanism: The Pursuit of Eloquence," Journal of the History of Ideas XXIV (1963): 497-514; reprinted in Renaissance Essays, edited by P. O. Kristeller and Philip P. Wiener (New York, 1968).
Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Eight Philosophers of the Italian Renaissance. Stanford, 1964.
. Renaissance Concepts of Man and Other Essays. New York, 1972.
. Renaissance Thought. 2 vols. New York, 1961-65. NOTE: Kristeller's writings are basic to an understanding of humanism.
Nolhac, Pierre de. Petrarch and the Ancient World. Boston, 1907.
. Pètrarque et l'humanisme. New ed. 2 vols. Paris, 1907. Remains a basic work.
Seigel, Jerrold E. Rhetoric and Philosophy in Renaissance Humanism. Princeton, 1968.
Trinkaus, Charles. Adversity's Noblemen: The Italian Humanists on Happiness. New York and London, 1940.
. In Our Image and Likeness: Humanity and Divinity in Italian Humanist Thought. 2 vols. Chicago, 1970.
Ullman, B. L. The Humanism of Coluccio Salutati. Padua, 1963.
Valla, Lorenzo. The Treatise of Lorenzo Valla on the Donation of Constantine. Translated and edited by Christopher Coleman. New Haven and London, 1922.
Weiss, Roberto. The Dawn of Humanism in Italy. London, 1947.
. The Renaissance Discovery of Classical Antiquity. Oxford, 1969.
Woodward, W. H. Studies in Education During the Age of the Renaissance, 1400-1600. Cambridge, 1906.
. Vittorino da Feltre and Other Humanist Educators. Cambridge, 1897. The paperback reprint, dated 1963, has a Foreword and Bibliographical Note by Eugene F. Rice, Jr.


The best way to study literature, of course, is to read the actual literary works, in the original languages if possible. This advice also applies to Chapter 20, on French and English literature. The following list includes some easily available English translations of important Italian literary works of the Renaissance, together with some useful secondary works.

Ariosto. Orlando Furioso. Translated by Sir John Harington and edited by Rudolf Gottfried. Bloomington, 1963.
Barbi, Michele. Life of Dante. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1954. Originally published in Italian in 1933.
Bishop, Morris. Petrarch and His World. Bloomington, 1963.
Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. Translated by Frances Winwar. New York, Modern Library, 1955.
. The Nymph of Fiesole. Translated by Daniel J. Donno. New York, 1960.
. The Book of Theseus. Translated by Bernadette Marie McCoy. New York, 1974.
Gilbert, Allan H. Dante and His Comedy. New York, 1963.
Machiavelli. Mandragola. Translated by Anne and Henry Paolucci. Indianapolis, 1957.
Petrarch. Sonnets and Songs. Translated by Anna Maria Armi. New York, 1946. A bilingual edition of the Canzoniere.
The Triumphs of Petrarch. Translated by Ernest Hatch Wilkins. Chicago and London, 1962.
Scaglione, Aldo D. Nature and Love in the Late Middle Ages. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1963. On the Decameron.
Wilkins, Ernest Hatch. A History of Italian Literature. Cambridge, Mass., 1954.
. Life of Petrarch. Chicago and London, 1961.
Wilkins was the author of numerous valuable studies of Petrarch.


Alberti, Leon Battista. On Painting. Translated and edited by John R. Spencer. London, 1956.
Berenson, Bernard. Italian Painters of the Renaissance. New York, 1957. The Meridian Books paperback edition includes all four of Berenson's books on the schools of Italian painting. These famous books have appeared in various editions.
Blunt, Anthony. Artistic Theory in Italy, 1450-1600. Oxford, 1940.
Clark, Kenneth. Leonardo da Vinci: An Account of His Development as an Artist. New York, 1939.
. Landscape into Art. London, 1949.
. Piero della Francesca. London, 1951.
De Tolnay, Charles. The Art and Thought of Michelangelo. New York, 1964.
Janson, H. W. The Sculpture of Donatello. 2 vols. Princeton, 1957. One-volume edition, 1963.
Meiss, Millard. Painting in Florence and Siena after the Black Death. Princeton, 1951. Brilliant depiction of the relationship between art and society in the third quarter of the fourteenth century.
Michelangelo. Poems. There have been a number of English translations of Michelangelo's poetry. John Addington Symonds translated the sonnets in the nineteenth century, and Elizabeth Jennings, a distinguished English poet, translated them in 1970. A complete translation of the poetry by Joseph Tusiani appeared in 1960. For an extensive bibliography of Michelangelo's poems and their translations, see Robert J. Clements, The Poetry of Michelangelo (New York, 1965).
Murray, Peter. The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance. London and New York, 1963.
Murray, Peter and Linda. The Art of the Renaissance. London, 1963.
Murray, Linda. The High Renaissance. London and New York, 1967.
. The Late Renaissance and Mannerism. London and New York, 1967.
Panofsky, Erwin. Renaissance and Renascences in Western Art. 2 vols. Stockholm, 1960.
. Studies in Iconology. New York, 1939. Two important studies by a great art historian.
Pope-Hennessy, John. Italian Renaissance Sculpture. London, 1958.
. The Portrait in the Renaissance. New York, 1966. Wittkower, Rudolf. Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism. 3d rev. ed. London, 1962.


Alberti, Leon Battista. The Family in Renaissance Florence. A translation of Della Famiglia by Rene N. Watkins. Columbia, S.C., 1969.
Burckhardt, Jacob. The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. This famous work, first published in German in Basel in 1860, has been printed frequently in English translation. The paperback edition, published by Harper Torchbooks in two volumes, is heavily illustrated and has an introduction by Benjamin Nelson and Charles Trinkaus. Burke, Peter. Culture and Society in Renaissance Italy, 1420-1540. London, 1972.
Bush, Douglas. The Renaissance and English Humanism. Toronto, 1939.
Cassirer, Ernst. The Individual and the Cosmos in Renaissance Philosophy. Oxford and New York, 1963. Originally published in German in 1927.
Ferguson, Wallace K. The Renaissance in Historical Thought: Five Centuries of Interpretation. Boston, 1948. Contains a full history of Renaissance interpretation, with an extensive bibliography. NOTE: Professor Ferguson has developed his own views on the Renaissance in the following works:
. Europe in Transition, 1300-1520. Boston, 1962.
. Renaissance Studies. London, Ont., 1963. Brings together a number of his articles on various phases of the Renaissance.
Gadol, Joan. Leon Battista Alberti: Universal Man of the Early Renaissance. Chicago and London, 1969.
Kristeller, Paul Oskar. The Philosophy of Marsilio Ficino. New York, 1943. Reprint: Gloucester, Mass., 1964.
Larner, John. Culture and Society in Italy, 1290-1420. London, 1971.
The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Edited by Edward MacCurdy. 2 vols. New York, 1938. Reprinted in 1954 by George Braziller, New York. A volume of Selections from the Notebooks, edited by Irma A. Richter, was published by the Oxford University Press in 1952. A paperback edition of the Notebooks, edited by J. P. Richter, is available in two volumes.
Lopez, Robert S. "Hard Times and Investment in Culture," in The Renaissance: Six Essays. New York, 1962. Originally published in 1953.
Pico della Mirandola. On the Dignity of Man, On Being and the One, Heptaplus. Indianapolis, 1965.
Yates, Frances A. Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition. London and Chicago, 1964.


Bainton, Roland H. Erasmus of Christendom. New York, 1969.
Brant, Sebastian. The Ship of Fools. Translated by Edwin H. Zeydel. New York, 1944.
Caspari, Fritz. Humanism and the Social Order in Tudor England. Chicago, 1954.
Chambers, R. W. Thomas More. London, 1935.
Clark, James M. The Great German Mystics: Eckhart, Tauler, and Suso. Oxford, 1949.
Einstein, Lewis. The Italian Renaissance in England. New York, 1902.
Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. "The Advent of Printing and the Problem of the Renaissance," Past and Present 45 (November 1969): 19-89.
. "Some Conjectures about the Impact of Printing on Western Society and Thought." Journal of Modern History 40 (March 1968): 1-56. Mrs. Eisenstein has written at least five articles on the subject of the importance of printing in the Renaissance. These two give a good idea of her main contentions.

NOTE: Many of Erasmus's works are now easily available in English. Two volumes may be listed here.
The Colloquies of Erasmus. Translated by Craig R. Thompson, Chicago and London, 1965.
The Essential Erasmus. Translated and edited by John P. Dolan. New York, 1964. Contains a number of Erasmus's basic writings.

Febvre, Lucien and Henri-Jean Martin. L'Apparition du Livre. Paris, 1958. Reprinted 1971.
Holborn, Hajo. Ulrich von Hutten and the German Reformation. New Haven, 1937. Reprinted 1966, Harper Torchbook.
Huizinga, Johan. Erasmus of Rotterdam. New York, 1924.
Jayne, Sears. John Colet and Marsilio Ficino. Oxford, 1963.
Joachimsen, Paul. Geschichtsauffassung und Geschichtsschreibung in Deutschland unter dem Einfluss des Humanismus. Leipzig and Berlin, 1910.
Letters of Obscure Men. Edited and translated by F. G. Stokes, London, 1909. Reprinted English text only, New York, 1964.
More, Thomas. Utopia. Edited by Edward Surtz, S.J. New Haven and London, 1964. This edition is part of the Selected Works of St. Thomas More, issued by the Yale University Press. This version of the Utopia is also available in hardcover and in a more scholarly edition edited by Father Surtz and J. H. Hexter in volume 4 of the Yale Edition of the Complete Works of St. Thomas More.
Renaudet, Augustin. Reforme et humanisme Paris pendant les premires guerres d'Italie (1494-1517). 2d ed. Paris, 1953. A great book, indispensable for its subject.
Rice, Eugene F., Jr. "John Colet and the Annihilation of the Natural," Harvard Theological Review XLV (1952): 141-163.
Simone, Franco. The French Renaissance. London, 1969. First published in Italian in 1961.
Spitz, Lewis W. The Religious Renaissance of the German Humanists. Cambridge, Mass., 1963.
Steinberg, S. H. Five Hundred Years of Printing. London, 1959.
Weiss, Roberto. Humanism in England During the Fifteenth Century. Oxford, 1941.


Beazley, C. Raymond. Prince Henry the Navigator. New ed. London and New York, 1923. Reprinted 1931.
Boxer, C. R. The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825. London, 1969.
Elliott, J. H. The Old World and the New, 1492-1650. Cambridge, 1970.
Morison, Samuel Eliot. Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus. Boston, 1942. Published in a two-volume edition and in a one-volume edition.
. Christopher Columbus, Mariner. Boston, 1955.
. The European Discovery of America.
. The Northern Voyages A.D. 500-1600. New York, 1971.
Newton, Arthur P., ed. Travel and Travellers of the Middle Ages. London and New York, 1926. Reprinted 1930.
Nowell, Charles E. The Great Discoveries and the First Colonial Empires. Ithaca, 1954.
Parry, J. H. The Age of Reconnaissance. London, 1963.
. Europe and a Wider World, 1415-1715. London and New York, 1949. The paperback edition is entitled The Establishment of the European Hegemony, 1415-1715. New York, 1961.
. The Spanish Seaborne Empire. New York and London, 1966.
Penrose, Boies. Travel and Discovery in the Renaissance, 1420-1620. Cambridge, Mass., 1952.
Prestage, Edgar. The Portuguese Pioneers. London, 1933.


The first four volumes of The Cambridge Economic History of Europe contain articles relevant to the subject matter of this book, with full bibliographies. These volumes are as follows:
Volume I, The Agrarian Life of the Middle Ages, 2d edition, edited by M. M. Postan;
Volume II, Trade and Industry in the Middle Ages, edited by M. M. Postan and Edward Miller;
Volume III, Economic Organization and Policies in the Middle Ages, edited by M. M. Postan, E. E. Rich, and Edward Miller;
Volume IV, The Economy of Expanding Europe in the 16th and 17th Centuries, edited by E. E. Rich and C. H. Wilson.

NOTE: Much research in economic history can be found in the articles in the Economic History Review.

Braudel, Fernand. Civilisation Matrielle et Capitalisme. Vol. I, Paris, 1967.
. La Mditerrane et le Monde Mditerranen l'poque de Philippe II. 2d rev. ed. Paris, 1949. Both of Braudel's books are available in English translation. The Journal of Modern History devoted much of one issue (Vol. 44, No. 4, December 1972) to articles on the work of Braudel.
Burke, Peter, ed. Economy and Society in Early Modern Europe. Essays from Annales. London, 1972. Some of the essays deal with the "Price Revolution." An article by Braudel is included.
Luzzatto, Gino. An Economic History of Italy. London, 1961. Reprinted 1968. First published in Italian in 1948.
Mauro, Frederic. Le XVIe siecle europeen. Aspects economiques.2d ed. Paris, 1970. Very full bibliography.
Ramsey, Peter H., ed. The Price Revolution in Sixteenth-Century England. London, 1971.
. Tudor Economic Problems. London, 1963. Strieder, Jacob. Jacob Fugger the Rich. New York, 1931.


Bainton, Roland H. Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther. New York and Nashville, 1950. The standard one-volume biography in English.
. The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century. Boston, 1952.
. Studies on the Reformation. Boston, 1963. Contains a number of articles on Luther.
Bergendoff, Conrad. Olavus Petri and the Ecclesiastical Transformation in Sweden. Philadelphia, 1965. Originally published in 1928. The 1965 edition has an introduction bringing the bibliography up to date.
Boehmer, Heinrich. Road to Reformation: Martin Luther to the Year 1521. Philadelphia, 1946. Translated from the German edition of 1929.
Brandi, Karl. Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation und Gegenreformation. Munich, 1927. Reprinted 1960.
Dickens, A. G. Martin Luther and the Reformation. London, 1967.
Dunkley, E. H. The Reformation in Denmark. London, 1948.
Erikson, Erik H. Young Man Luther. New York, 1958. A famous and controversial attempt to apply to Luther's development the techniques and findings of modern psychology.
Holborn, Hajo. A History of Modern Germany: The Reformation. New York, 1959.
Holl, Karl. Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Kirchengeschichte, Vol. I: Luther. 7th ed. Tbingen, 1948. Important essays by one of the greatest of Luther scholars.
Iserloh, Erwin. The Theses Were Not Posted. Boston, 1968. Translated from the German edition of 1967. Advances the fascinating proposition that Luther never actually posted the ninety-five theses on the door of the Castle Church.
Lortz, Joseph. Die Reformation in Deutschland. 4th ed. 2 vols. Freiburg, 1962. Available in English. Important work by an irenically minded Catholic scholar.
Luther, Martin. Martin Luther: Selections from His Writings. Edited by John Dillenberger. Chicago, 1961. A great deal of Luther's work is readily available in English. This useful volume contains several of his most important writings.
Ritter, Gerhard. Luther: His Life and Work. New York, 1963. Translated from the German edition of 1959. Profound interpretation of Luther by one of the outstanding German historians of the twentieth century.
Rupp, E. Gordon. The Righteousness of God. London, 1953. Essays on various subjects connected with Luther.
Todd, John M. Martin Luther: A Biographical Study. London and Westminster, Md., 1964. Sympathetic biography by an English Catholic layman.
Ziegler, Donald J. Great Debates of the Reformation. New York, 1969. Useful volume containing contemporary records of some of the crucial debates of the period, including the Leipzig Debate, the Marburg Colloquy, and others.


Bornkamm, Heinrich. "Martin Bucer, der dritte deutsche Reformator," in his book Das Jahrhundert der Reformation. Göttingen, 1966, 88-112. Originally published in 1961.
. Martin Bucers Bedeutung für die europäische Reformationsgeschichte. Gtersloh, 1952.
Chrisman, Miriam Usher. Strasbourg and the Reform. New Haven and London, 1967.
Eells, Hastings. Martin Bucer. New Haven and London, 1931.
Farner, Oskar. Zwingli the Reformer. New York, 1952.
Jackson, Samuel M. Huldreich Zwingli. New York, 1901.
Pauck, Wilhelm. The Heritage of the Reformation. Rev. and enlarged ed. Glencoe, Ill., 1961. Contains articles on Luther and Butzer and Calvin and Butzer, together with a number of other articles on Reformation subjects.
Schmidt, Charles. Histoire litteraire de l'Alsace la fin du XVe et au commencement du XVIe siecle. 2 vols. Paris, 1879.


Bainton, Roland H. Castellio's Concerning Heretics. New York, 1935. Reprinted 1965.
Bainton, Roland H., Bruno Becker, Marius Valkhoff, and Sape van der Woude. Castellioniana. Leiden, 1951. Four essays on Castellio and tolerance in English, French, and German.
Bainton, Roland H. Hunted Heretic: The Life and Death of Michael Servetus, 1511-1553. Boston, 1953.
Calvin, Jean. John Calvin: Selections from His Writings. Edited by John Dillenberger. Garden City, N.Y., 1971. Good volume of selections, in the same format as the volume of Luther selections cited for Chapter 12.
Harkness, Georgia. John Calvin: The Man and His Ethics. New York, 1958.
Imbart de la Tour, P. Les Origines de la Reforme. Vol. IV, Calvin et l'Institution Chrtienne. Paris, 1935.
Mackinnon, James. Calvin and the Reformation. London, 1936.
McNeill, John T. "The Democratic Element in Calvin's Thought," Church History XVIII (1949): 153-171.
. The History and Character of Calvinism. New York, 1954.
Monter, E. William. Calvin's Geneva. New York, 1967.
Parker, T. H. L. Portrait of Calvin. London, 1954.
Walker, Williston. John Calvin, the Organiser of Reformed Protestantism, 1509-1564. New York and London, 1906.
Wendel, Franois. Calvin: The Origins and Development of His Religious Thought. New York, 1963. Originally published in French in 1950.


Articles on the Anabaptists can be found in the Mennonite Quarterly Review (Mennonite Historical Society, Goshen, Ind. 1927) and The Mennonite Encyclopedia, 4 vols., Hillsboro, Kan., 1955-59. These sources must be read with some caution, since the articles are largely written by the present-day spiritual descendants of the Anabaptists, who in some cases seem to be trying to make up for the centuries of bias against their predecessors by a corresponding bias in the opposite direction.

Bainton, Roland H. Studies on the Reformation (cited above, Chapter 12). Contains a group of articles on "The Left Wing of the Reformation," including an important article with that title.
Bender, Harold S. "The Anabaptists and Religious Liberty in the 16th Century," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 44 (1953): 32-50.
. Conrad Grebel, c.1498-1526: The Founder of the Swiss Brethren Sometimes called Anabaptists. Goshen, Ind., 1950.
Evans, Austin P. An Episode in the Struggle for Religious Freedom. The Sectaries of Nuremberg, 1524-1528. New York, 1924.
Hillerbrand, Hans J. "Anabaptism and the Reformation: Another Look," Church History XXIX 4 (1960): 404-423.
. "Andreas Bodenstein of Carlstadt, Prodigal Reformer," Church History XXXV 4 (1966): 379-398.
. "Menno Simons Sixteenth Century Reformer," Church History XXXI (1962): 387-399.
. "The Origin of Sixteenth Century Anabaptism: Another Look," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 53 (1962): 152-180.
Jones, Rufus M. Spiritual Reformers in the 16th and 17th Centuries. London, 1914. Reprinted in paperback, Boston, 1959.
Kot, Stanislas. Socinianism in Poland. Boston, 1957.
Littell, Franklin H. The Anabaptist View of the Church. 2d. ed. rev., Boston, 1958. Reprinted in paperback, with bibliography brought up to date, as The Origins of Sectarian Protestantism: A Study of the Anabaptist View of the Church (New York, 1964).
Maier, Paul L. "Caspar Schwenckfeld A Quadricentennial Evaluation," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 54 (1963): 89-96.
Rupp, E. Gordon. Patterns of Reformation. London 1969.
Schultz, Selina G. Caspar Schwenckfeld von Ossig (1489-1561). Norristown, Pa., 1947. Almost more hagiography than biography, but written by an author thoroughly familiar with the sources.
The Complete Writings of Menno Simons. Scottdale, Pa., 1956.
Vedder, Henry C. Balthasar Hübmaier, the Leader of the Anabaptists. New York and London, 1905.
Wilbur, Earl Morse. A History of Unitarianism. 2 vols. Cambridge, Mass., 1945, 1952.
Williams, George H. The Radical Reformation. Philadelphia, 1962. The most comprehensive work on the subject, based on monumental scholarship, but written in a style so difficult that only the most devoted student will persevere to the end.
Williams, George H. and Angel M. Mergal, eds. Spiritual and Anabaptist Writers, Library of Christian Classics, XXV. London, 1957. A collection of original documents.
Zuck, Lowell H. "Anabaptism: Abortive Counter-Revolt Within the Reformation," Church History XXVI 3 (1957): 211-226.


The standard history of Tudor England will be found in the relevant volumes of the Oxford History of England:
J. D. Mackie. The Earlier Tudors, 1485-1558 (1952);
J. B. Black. The Reign of Elizabeth. (2d ed., 1959).
A sprightly brief history of the period is S. T. Bindoff's Tudor England (Harmondsworth, Middlesex and Baltimore, 1950) a volume in the Pelican History of England.
Chrimes, S. B. Henry VII. London, 1972.
Collinson, Patrick. The Elizabethan Puritan Movement. London, 1967.
Dickens, A. G. The English Reformation. London, 1964.
. Thomas Cromwell and the English Reformation. London, 1959.
Elton, G. R. Policy and Police. Cambridge, 1972.
. Reform and Renewal. Cambridge, 1973. . The Tudor Constitution. Cambridge, 1960.
. The Tudor Revolution in Government. Cambridge, 1953. NOTE: Elton's views on a revolution in government in the Tudor period, set forth in this book and elsewhere, have been influential and controversial. A debate between Elton and some of his critics can be found in Past and Present for the years 1963-65.
Jordan, W. K. Edward VI: The Young King. London, 1968.
. Edward VI: The Threshold of Power. London, 1970. NOTE: Jordan's two volumes constitute a comprehensive history of the reign of Edward VI, which will no doubt remain the standard work on the subject for some time to come. He proposes some fascinating and controversial views, such as the thesis that it was Edward rather than Northumberland who evolved the idea of excluding Mary from the succession.
Knappen, M. M. Tudor Puritanism. Chicago, 1939.
Mattingly, Garrett. The Armada. Boston, 1959.
Published in England as The Defeat of the Spanish Armada. London, 1959.
. Catherine of Aragon. London, 1942.
Neale, J. E. Elizabeth I and Her Parliaments. 2 vols. London, 1953-1957.
. The Elizabethan House of Commons. London, 1949.
. Queen Elizabeth. New York and London, 1934. Still the standard biography. Neale's works are indispensable for all students of the Elizabethan period.
Pollard, A. F. Henry VIII. London, 1902.
. Wolsey. London, 1929. An edition of 1953 incorporated a few notes and corrections made by the author before his death in 1948.
Prescott, H. F. M. Mary Tudor. 2d. rev. ed. London, 1952.
Rowse, A. L. The Elizabethan Age. Rowse's great work is complete in the following volumes, all available in paperback:
. The England of Elizabeth: The Structure of Society. London, 1950.
. The Expansion of Elizabethan England. London, 1955.
. The Elizabethan Renaissance: The Life of the Society. London, 1971.
. The Elizabethan Renaissance: The Cultural Achievement. London, 1972.
Scarisbrick, J. J. Henry VIII. London, 1968.
Smith, Lacey Baldwin. Henry VIII: The Mask of Royalty. London, 1971. Not a biography but a superb evocation of the character of Henry.
Wernham, R. B. Before the Armada. London, 1966.
Williamson, J. A. The Age of Drake. 5th ed. London, 1965.

The following brief list will prove useful in the study of Scottish history during this period:

Donaldson, Gordon. The Scottish Reformation. Cambridge, 1960.
. Mary, Queen of Scots. London, 1974.
Fraser, Antonia. Mary, Queen of Scots. London, 1969.
Lee, Maurice, Jr. James Stewart, Earl of Moray. New York, 1953.
Ridley, Jasper. John Knox. Oxford, 1968.


Grant, A. J. The French Monarchy (1483-1789). 2 vols. Cambridge, 1925. The first volume contains material relevant to this period.
Kingdon, Robert M. "The Political Resistance of the Calvinists in France and the Low Countries," Church History XXVII (1958): 220-233.
Major, J. Russell. "The French Renaissance Monarchy as Seen through the Estates General," Studies in the Renaissance IX (1962): 113-125.
. Representative Institutions in Renaissance France, 1421-1559. Madison, 1960.
Neale, J. E. The Age of Catherine de Medici. London, 1943.
Pages, Georges. La Monarchie d'ancien regime en France. Paris, 1946.
Roelker, Nancy Lyman. Queen of Navarre, Jeanne d'Albret, 1528-1572. Cambridge, Mass., 1968.
Vinot, John. Histoire de la Réforme franaise des origines l'edit de Nantes. Paris, 1926.
Willert, P. F. Henry of Navarre and the Huguenots in France. New York and London, 1906.
Zeller, Gaston. Les institutions de la France au XVIe sicle. Paris, 1948.


Davies, R. Trevor. The Golden Century of Spain, 1501-1621. London, 1937.
Elliott, J. H. Imperial Spain, 1469-1716. London, 1963. An outstanding survey.
Geyl, Pieter. The Revolt of the Netherlands (1555-1609). 2d ed. London, 1958.
Giesey, Ralph E. If Not, Not: The Oath of the Aragonese and the Legendary Laws of Sobrarbe. Princeton, 1968.
Lynch, John. Spain Under the Habsburgs. 2 vols. Oxford, 1964, 1969. The first volume contains material relevant to this period.
Marijol, Jean H. Philip II, the First Modern King. New York, 1933.
Merriman, Roger B. The Rise of the Spanish Empire in the Old World and in the New. 4 vols. New York, 1918-1934. Reprinted 1962.
Roth, Cecil. The Spanish Inquisition. New York, 1964.
Wedgwood, C. V. William the Silent. New Haven, 1944.


Brodrick, James. Saint Francis Xavier (1506-1552). London, 1952.
. Saint Ignatius Loyola: The Pilgrim Years. London, 1956. Life of Loyola to the founding of the Society of Jesus.
. The Origin of the Jesuits. London and New York, 1940. Frequently reprinted. The official history of the order during the lifetime of Loyola to 1556.
. The Progress of the Jesuits (1556-79). London and New York, 1947. Sequel to the preceding volume.
Cronin, Vincent. A Pearl to India. The Life of Roberto de Nobili. London, 1959.
. The Wise Man From the West. London and New York, 1955.
Daniel-Rops, Henri. The Catholic Reformation. London and New York, 1962. Originally published in French in 1955.
Dickens, A. G. The Counter Reformation. London, 1969.
Douglas, Richard M. Jacopo Sadoleto, 1477-1547: Humanist and Reformer. Cambridge, Mass., 1959.
Evennett, H. Outram. The Spirit of the Counter-Reformation. Cambridge, 1968.
Janelle, Pierre. The Catholic Reformation. Milwaukee, Wis., 1949.
Jedin, Hubert. A History of the Council of Trent:
Vol. I, The Struggle for the Council. London, 1957. Originally published in German in 1949.
Vol. II, The First Sessions at Trent, 1545-47. London, 1961. Originally published in German in 1957.
Loyola, Ignatius. Spiritual Exercises. Translated by Anthony Mottola. New York, 1964. Indispensable for the understanding of the Jesuit order and the Catholic Reformation.
The Life of Saint Teresa. Various editions. St. Teresa's autobiography is a fascinating and instructive document.
Van Dyke, Paul. Ignatius Loyola, the Founder of the Jesuits. New York, 1926.


As indicated in connection with Chapter 6, the best way to study literature is to read the original works. The following list gives the names of a few secondary works, and, in the case of French literature, of readily available translations of original works.


Bishop, Morris. Ronsard, Prince of Poets. London and New York, 1940.
Cohen, Gustave. Ronsard, sa vie et son oeuvre. New ed. Paris, 1956.
Febvre, Lucien. Le Probleme de l'incroyance au XVIe siecle. Paris, 1947. Reprinted 1962.
Frame, Donald M. Montaigne: A Biography. New York, 1965.
Jourda, Pierre. Marot, L'homme et l'oeuvre. Paris, 1950.
Lewis, D. B. Wyndham. Doctor Rabelais. London and New York, 1957.
NOTE: Montaigne has been fortunate in his translators into English. Especially to be recommended is the splendid translation of Donald M. Frame. This may be obtained in the following versions: The Complete Works of Montaigne, Stanford, 1957, which contains the Essays, Travel Journal, and Letters. Also The Complete Essays of Montaigne, Stanford, 1958, which is a paperback edition of the Essays.
Moreau, Pierre. Montaigne: L'homme et l' oeuvre. 6th ed. Paris, 1958.
Plattard, Jean. La Renaissance des lettres en France de Louis XII a Henri IV. 5th ed. Paris, 1947.
Rabelais. Gargantua and Pantagruel. Various English versions. A convenient one is by J. M. Cohen in the Penguin paperback edition (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, 1955).
Saulnier, V. L. Du Bellay. 3d ed. Paris, 1963.


Bayley, Peter. Edmund Spenser: Prince of Poets. London, 1971.
Bentley, Gerald Eades. Shakespeare: A Biographical Handbook. New Haven, 1961.
Campbell, Lily B. Shakespeare's "Histories": Mirrors of Elizabethan Policy. San Marino, Calif., 1947.
Chambers, E. K. William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems. 2 vols. Oxford, 1930. Reprinted 1951. An abridged edition of this book appeared as A Short Life of Shakespeare with the Sources, edited by Charles Williams, appeared in 1933.
Craig, Hardin. The Enchanted Glass: The Elizabethan Mind in Literature. Oxford, 1952. First printed in 1935.
Harbage, Alfred. As They Liked It. An Essay on Shakespeare and Morality. New York, 1947.
. Shakespeare's Audience. New York and London, 1941. Levin, Harry. Christopher Marlowe: The Overreacher. London, 1967.
Lewis, C. S. The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Cambridge, 1967.
. English Literature in the Sixteenth Century, excluding Drama. Oxford, 1954.
. Spenser's Images of Life. Edited by Alastair Fowler. Cambridge, 1967.
NOTE: C. S. Lewis's works, of which these three books are only a sample, are invariably brilliant and illuminating.
Renwick, W. L. Edmund Spenser: An Essay on Renaissance Poetry. London, 1925. Reprinted 1964.
Rowse, A. L. William Shakespeare. A Biography. London and New York, 1963. Controversial work by a historian who claims to have solved the riddles of Shakespeare.
Spencer, Theodore. Shakespeare and the Nature of Man. 2d ed. New York, 1949.
Tillyard, E. M. W. The English Renaissance: Fact or Fiction? London, 1952.
. The Elizabethan World Picture. London, 1943.
. Shakespeare's History Plays. London, 1944.
Wilson, F. P. The English Drama, 1485-1585. Edited with a Bibliography by G. K. Hunter. Oxford, 1968.


Allen, J. W. A History of Political Thought in the Sixteenth Century. London, 1951.
Baumer, Franklin Le Van. The Early Tudor Theory of Kingship. New Haven and London, 1940. Reprinted 1966.
Bodin, Jean. Method for the Easy Comprehension of History. Translated by Beatrice Reynolds. New York, 1945.
. Six Books of the Commonwealth. Edited by M. J. Tooley. Oxford, 1955.
Figgis, J. N. Studies of Political Thought from Gerson to Grotius, 1414-1625. 2d ed. Cambridge, 1916.
Franklin, Julian H., ed. Constitutionalism and Resistance in the Sixteenth Century. New York, 1969. Political treatises by Hotman, Beza, and Mornay; very important for the understanding of French political thought in this period.
Hexter, J. H. More's Utopia: The Biography of an Idea. Princeton, 1952.
Hudson, Winthrop S. John Ponet (1516?-1556): Advocate of Limited Monarchy. Chicago, 1942. In addition to the biography, the book contains a facsimile reprint of A Shorte Treatise of Politike Power (1556).
Lehmberg, Stanford E. Sir Thomas Elyot, Tudor Humanist. Austin, 1960.
Mesnard, Pierre. L'Essor de la philosophie politique au XVIe sicle. Paris, 1936.
Morris, Christopher. Political Thought in England, Tyndale to Hooker. London and New York, 1953.


Of the books by Peter and Linda Murray cited for Chapter 7, The Art of the Renaissance and The Late Renaissance and Mannerism contain material about northern art as well as Italian art.

Benesch, Otto. The Art of the Renaissance in Northern Europe. Rev. ed. London, 1965.
Blunt, Anthony. Art and Architecture in France, 1500-1700. 2d rearranged impression, Harmondsworth, Middlesex and Baltimore, 1957.
Osten, Gert von der and Horst Vey. Painting and Sculpture in Germany and the Netherlands, 1500-1600. Harmondsworth, Middlesex and Baltimore, 1969.
Panofsky, Erwin. The Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer. Princeton, 1955. A superb work. First published in a two-volume edition, Princeton University Press, 1943.
Ruhmer, E. Cranach. London, 1963.
Stechow, Wolfgang. Pieter Bruegel the Elder. New York, 1969.
Strong, Roy. Holbein and Henry VIII. London and New York, 1967.


Armitage, Angus. Sun, Stand Thou Still. New York, 1947. Reprinted in paperback as The World of Copernicus.
Boas, Marie. The Scientific Renaissance, 1450-1630. New York, 1962.
Brown, Harcourt. "The Renaissance and Historians of Science," Studies in the Renaissance VII (1960): 27-42.
Burtt, Edwin Arthur. The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Physical Science. 2d ed. rev. London, 1949.
Butterfield, Herbert. The Origins of Modern Science, 1300-1800. Rev. ed. New York, 1957.
Drake, Stillman, ed. Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo. Garden City, N.Y., 1957.
Hall, Marie Boas, ed. Nature and Nature's Laws: Documents of The Scientific Revolution. New York, 1970.
Kuhn, Thomas. The Copernican Revolution. Cambridge, Mass., 1957.
O'Malley, C. D. Andreas Vesalius of Brussels, 1514-1564. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1964.
Wightman, W. P. D. Science in a Renaissance Society. London, 1972.


Bainton, Roland H. The Travail of Religious Liberty. Philadelphia, 1951.
Bouwsma, William J. Concordia Mundi: The Career and Thought of Guillaume Postel (1510-1581). Cambridge, Mass., 1957.
Kamen, Henry. The Rise of Toleration. London and New York, 1967.
Lecler, Joseph. Toleration and the Reformation. 2 vols. London and New York, 1960. Originally published in French in 1955. Highly recommended.
Malleus Maleficarum. Translated with an Introduction, Bibliography and Notes by Montague Summers. London, 1948.
Nauert, Charles G., Jr. Agrippa and the Crisis of Renaissance Thought. Urbana, 1965.
Nelson, Ernest W. "The Theory of Persecution," in Persecution and Liberty. Freeport, N.Y., 1968. First published in 1931. 3-20.
Yates, Frances A. Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition, cited in full for Chapter 8.


Since this concluding chapter consists largely of a discussion of books, the following list contains the names of the books mentioned, in the order in which they are referred to.

Todd, John M. Martin Luther. Full citation for Chapter 12.
Lortz, Joseph. Die Reformation in Deutschland. Full citation for Chapter 12.
Bouyer, Louis. The Spirit and Forms of Protestantism. Westminster, Md., 1956.
Dolan, John P. History of the Reformation. New York, 1965.
Pelikan, Jaroslav. Obedient Rebels: Catholic Substance and Protestant Principle in Luther's Reformation. New York, 1964.
Delumeau, Jean. Naissance et affirmation de la Reforme. Paris, 1965.
Pförtner, Stephen. Luther and Aquinas on Salvation. London, 1964. Originally published in German in 1961.
Lackmann, Max. The Augsburg Confession and Catholic Unity. New York, 1963. Originally published in German in 1959.
Erikson, Erik H. Young Man Luther. Full citation for Chapter 12.
Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York, 1958. Originally published in German in 1904-05.
Samuelsson, Kurt. Religion and Economic Action: A Critique of Max Weber. New York, 1961. Originally published in Swedish in 1957.
Butterfield, Herbert. The Origins of Modern Science. Full citation for Chapter 23.
Ritter, Gerhard. Die Dämonie der Macht. 6th ed. Munich, 1948.
Meinecke, Friedrich. Die Idee der Staatsräson. Originally published in 1924. Translated into English as Machiavellism: The Doctrine of Raison d'Etat and Its Place in Modern History. New Haven, 1962.
Dehio, Ludwig. The Precarious Balance. New York, 1962. Originally published in German in 1948.